Arthropod-bourne infectious disease 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthropod-bourne infectious disease 1 Deck (59)
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1

What tick borne pathogens my be importe in dogs travelling from EU

NON ENDEMIC to UK: babesia canis canis, babesia gibsoni, ehrlichia canis
ENDEMIC TO UK: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum

2

Which ticks are present in Europe?

- Ixodes ricin us: widespread
- Dermacentor reticularis: more restricted distribution
- Rhipicephalus sanguineus : life cycle requires temp > 18 degrees, not endemic in UK, intro from dogs travelling from EU, establish in houses / kennels here, vector for Mediterranean spotted fever (rickettsia conorii), carries babesia and ehrlichia

3

What are babesia and theileria?

Piroplasms

4

Most important agents of canine babesiosis

- LARGE BABESIA: b. Canis canis, B canis vogeli and B. Canis Rossi
- SMALL BABESIA: b. Gibsoni

5

How do different babesia spp vary?

- size
- vectors
- geo distribution
- Virulence
- prognosis
- response to tx

6

Babesia pathogens sis

- within ticks transmitted trans-stadially and trans-ovarially
- sporophytes injected from tick salivary glands
- enter circulation, endocytosed by RBC
- IM component of pathology
- TP common (but usually doesn't cause bleeding or abnormal coagulation)

7

Which babesia spp are zoonotic?

- b.microti - rodent reservoir
- b. Divergent - cattle reservoir

8

CS - babesiosis

- those of haemolytic anaemia
- lethargy, depression, inappetance
- icterus
- splenomegaly
- tachycardia and tachypnoea

9

Babesia - diagnosis

1 clinical laboratory findings: non-specific, TP common, many dogs are Coombs positive / auto agglutinate
2. Microscope identification : low sensitivity so must use another test to verify
3. PCR : high sensitivity, broad range babesia PCR, spp id possible using species specific PCR / sequencing
4. Serology: usually IFA or ELISA

10

Babesia - tx

- antibabesia drug : Imidiocarb dipropronate
- LARGE BABESIA: rapid clinical response
- SMALL FORMS : clinical and parasitological cure uncommon, clinical relapses may occur

11

What type of bacteria are rickettsia?

Small obligate intracellular gram negative

12

Which rickettsia infect monocytes?

- ehrlichia canis
- ehrlichia Chaffeensis: causes human monocytes ehrlichiosis, transmitted by ambylomma americanum, molecular evidence canine infections

13

Which rickettsial parasite infects thrombocytes?

Anaplasma platys

14

Which ricketssia infects granulocytes?

- anaplasma phagocytophilum
- ehrlichia erwingii

15

Incubation time - ehrlichia canis

1-3 weeks

16

Acute CS - ehrlichia canis

- vascular is and immune destruction leading to thrombocytopenia and cpagulopathy
- multi systemic signs
- spleen and LN enlargement
- CNS / ocular signs

17

Chronic - CS - ehrlichia canis

- BM destruction leading to pancytopaenia
- signs as for acute

18

Species infected by ehrlichia canis

Dogs and wild canids only

19

Diagnosis - ehrlichia canis

- modular in blood smears or macrophages from tissue as pirates (spleen, lung, LN)
- thrombocytopenia / pancytopaenia
- IFA/ELISA

20

Tx/ prevention - Ehrlichia canis

-tx: TCs for 28d/ chloramphenicol
- no vaccine
- chemo prophylaxis
- tick control

21

Anaplasma phagocytophilum - CS

- mild/ moderate TP
- lymphopaenia
- mild anaemia
- naturL chronic infection has not been seen
- impaired PMn function can predispose to secondary infection

22

A. Phagocytophilum in cats?

Very rarely

23

A.phagocytophilum - zoonotic?

Yes but unclear if infected domestic animals pose zoonotic risk. May have role as sentinels

24

What is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato associated with?

Lyme borreliosis

25

Hosts - borrelia

Humans, dogs incidental host (sylvatic tick- wildlife cycle)

26

What are the Borrelia pathogenic genospecies?

- b.afzelli (skin complications)
- b. Garinii (Neuro complications)
- b.burgdorferi sensu stricto ( the only pathogenic spp in USA, present in some parts of. Europe and can cause Neuro / arthritic complications)

27

What is the most prevalent tick- transmit infection in temperate areas of Europe, USA and Asia?

Lyme disease in people

28

CS - human Lyme disease

- erythema migrans in 80-90%
- later involves skin, Neuro and msk systems

29

Overall mean prevalence of b.burgdorferi in ticks in Europe

12%. Central Europe has highest tick infection rates

30

CS - borreliosis in dogs

- co infections common
- lethargy, anorexia and pyrexia
- inflammatory PA
- inflammatory arthritis
- lymphadenopathy
- protein losing glomerulonephropathy

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