DERMATOLOGY - Ectoparasite control - SAs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DERMATOLOGY - Ectoparasite control - SAs Deck (68):
1

What are the 3 commonest orders of the class Insecta to cause disease in small animals?

- Diptera (flies)
- Diphonaptera (fleas)
- Phthiraptera (fleas)
- use INSECTICIDES against these

2

What is the Order Acarina

- part of the class ' Arachnida'
- includes ticks and mites
- use ACARICIDES against these

3

What propotion of the flea population is present as an adult at a given point in time?

only 5% total population

4

What temperature and humidity are required for the flea LC?

Temp 20-30 degrees
Relative Humidity (RH) of > 70%

5

What are the objectives of FAD therapy

- kill fleas in hair coat
- protect against re-infestation
- eliminate environmental reservoir and prevent future generations

6

What are the targets in flea control? 2

- ADULTS in hair (adulticide)
- IMMATURE STAGES in carpet/refuge (killed on emergence/not replaced due to adulticide, IGR or IDI, vacuum)

7

Name 5 traditional insecticides for fleas

- organophosphates
- organochlorides
- carbamates
- pyrethroids
- other botanicals

8

Name insecticides against fleas

- imidacloprid/ nitenpyram / dinotefuran
- fipronil/ pyriprole
- selamectin (stronghold)
- spinosad
- newer products
- (metaflumizone)

9

List some newer insecticides against fleas

- indoxacarb
- indoxacarb / permethrin
- fipronil / methoprene / amitraz
- spinosad
- fluralaner
- afoxolaner

10

What would an ideal flea tx do?

- kill flea before feeding (none do this)
- kill flea before it lays eggs (36h, existing products do this for 3 weeks)

11

Outline Spinosad (Comfortis) as a flea treatment

= adulticide
- tetracyclic macrolide
- targets nACH-R
- DOG and CAT
- fleas only
- rapid kill (80-100% at 4 hours)
- persists 3-4 weeks
- ORAL administration
- vomiting (5% dogs, up to 15% cats)
*DON'T GIVE WITH IVERMECTIN*

12

What is Certifect?

= Fipronil/ methoprene/ amitraz flea tx
- DOG ONLY
- spot on, every 4 weeks
- for fleas, Trichodectes canis (lice) and ticks (but doesn't stop attachment)

13

What is Frontline combo?

= fipronil + methoprene (IGR)
- dog and cat
- extended ovicidal activity
- resistance?
- POM-V

14

What is Activyl/ Indoxacarb?

= new adulticide against fleas
- Na channel blocker
- bio-activation
- spot on every 4 weeks
- >90% activity within 8 hours
- fleas only

15

What is Pyriprole?

= adulticide for fleas
- dog only
- fleas and ticks

16

What is Activyl Tick Plus (Indoxacarb + Permethrin)?

- flea adulticide
- DOG ONLY
- bioactivation
- spot-on, every 4 weeks
- AGAINST: fleas, ticks, Ixodes, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Amblyomma

17

What is 'Scalibor'?

- a 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collar
- 6 month activity (dog only)
- sandflies, mosquitos, ticks
- >99% flea, >94% tick control for 6 months
- safe to combine with Activyl (Indoxacarb = flea adulticide)

18

What are the 2 main mechanisms of insecticide resistance?

- DETOXIFICATION - by hydrolases and mixed function oxidases
- TARGET SITE MODIFICATION - AChE, nAChE-R, Na-channel and GABA-R

19

What are the main concerns of resistance in agriculture??

- fipronil resistance
- imidacloprid resistance

20

Name 4 different IGR/IDIs

- LUFENURON - orally (dogs), injection/oral (cats)
- CYROMAZINE - household spray
- PYRIPROXIFEN - on animal, household spray
- METHOPRENE - on animal, household spray

21

What are the 2 different types of IGR?

- JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOGUES (JHA)
- INSECT DEVELOPMENT INHIBITORS (IDI)

22

How do juvenile hormone analogues work and give 2 examples

- disrupt growth in immature insects
- methoprene and pyriproxyfen

23

How do IDIs work and give an example

- inhibit chitin syntehsis
- lufenuron

24

Describe nitenpyram (capstar)

- oral
- flea only
- dog, cat
- no persistence

25

Describe spinosad (Comfortis)

- oral
- flea only
- dog, cat
- rapid kill, 3-4 weeks persistence

26

Describe Afoxolaner (NexGard)

- oral
- flea (5 weeks) and tick (4 weeks)
- dog only

27

Describe Fluralaner (Bravecto)

- oral
- flea (12 weeks) and tick (8-12 weeks)
- dog only

28

Describe the Fipronil spray

- dog, cat
- 4 week activity
- label (8,12 weeks)
- lice and ticks

29

Outline Indoxacard spot-on (Activyl)

- flea only
- dog and cat

30

Outline Imidacloprid (Advantage) spot-on

- flea only
- dog, cat and RABBIT
- efficacy reduced by wetting

31

Describe fipronil spot on treatment

- dog and cat
- flea and tick and lice
- > 4 week activity

32

Outline Pyriprole (Pract-tic) treatment

- dog only
- ticks

33

Describe imidacloprid/permethrin (Advantix)

- spot on
- flea and tick
- dog only
- NOT CAT!

34

Describe Dinotefuran/ permethrin/ pyriproxyfen (Vectra 3D)

- spot on
- flea and tick
- dog only
- NOT CAT

35

Define endectocide

An antiparasitic drug that is active both against endoparasites and against ectoparasites.

36

Name 2 spot-on endectocides

- SELAMECTIN: dog, cat, systemic
- IMIDACLOPRID/ MOXIDECTIN (Advocate): dog, cat, systemic, topical

37

What are the 3 options for treating sarcoptes?

- SELAMECTIN (stronghold, revolution) - twice, every month
- IMIDACLOPRID/ MOXIDECTIN (Advocate): twice every month
- AMITRAZ (Aludex) washes: weekly for 2-6 treatments

38

Which acaricidal product should you use for demodicosis?

- IMIDACLOPRID/ MOXIDECTIN (Advocate) - every 7 days
- AMITRAZ (Aludex) washes - weekly for 8-16 treatments
- NON-LICENSED ORAL TREATMENTS - ivermectin (not collies), milbemycin

39

Which acaricidal products can you use for ticks?

- FIPRONIL (spray or spot-on) - cats, dogs
- IMIDACLOPRID/ PERMETHRIN (spot on), DOGS
- INDOXACARB / PERMETHRIN spot on, dogs only
- DINOTEFURAN/ PERMETHRIN spot on, dogs only
- FIPRONIL + AMITRAZ - dogs
- AMITRAZ or DELTAMETHRIN collars - dogs only
- AFOXALANER, FLURALANER - dogs only

40

What is a new tick product for cats?

Seresto collar
- imidacloprid and flumethrin
- fleas and ticks for 7-8 months
- dogs: fleas, biting lice and ticks for 7-8 months
- flea activity of 5 month if wetting

41

Name 3 zoonotic ectoparasites of small animals

- fleas
- sarcoptic mange
- cheyletiellosis

42

How do phenylypyrazole insecticides work? Examples?

- target the GABA-gated chlorid channel in insect CNS
- fipronil, pyriprole
- spot on or spay fipronil have generally excellent control of adult cat fleas and egg production in cats and dogs.
- pyriprole similar results in lab dogs

43

What does the combination of fipronil (a pheylypyrazole insecticide) with (S)-methoprene do?

(S)-methoprene is a synthetic juvenile insect hormone analgouse. it inhibits egg development and adult emergence. combination is likely to delay resistance development and overcomes the lack of immediate adulticide activity when IGRs are administered alone.

44

Give 3 exampes of neonicotinoid insecticides

- imidacloprid
- nitenpyram
- dinotefuran

45

How do neonicotinoid insecticides work?

target the insecticide nicotinic acetylycholine receptor

46

How does imidacloprid work?

- spot on rapidly kills adult fleas
- provides > 4 weeks control in both dogs and cats
- larvicidal activity in unwashed bedding of treated cats persisted for > 18 weeks

47

Does Dinotefuran or Imidacloprid have a more rapid speed of kill?

Dinotefuran

48

Describe Nitenpyram action

- a water-soluble neonicotinoid (targets insect nicotinic Ach-R)
- exceptionally high bioavailability when administed orally to dogs and cats
- rapidly removes fleas
- adulticidal for 48 hours

49

What is special about spinosad?

it cobines rapid flea killing with persistent (30 day) efficacy following a single oral dose in dogs

50

What type of drug is selamectin?

a semi-synthetic avermectin
- effectively controls fleas on dogs and cats and home

51

How does Metflumizone work? How long for?

- induces a relaxed paralysis in insects by binding voltage- sensitive Na channels.
- 6 week action (spot on) thus exceeds the month-long effectiveness of most other spot-on products with the exception of those containing fipronil

52

Tx - localised demodicosis in young dogs

- often resolves spontaneiously
- decision to treat depends on case (sometimes just treat with benzoyl peroxide shampoo or gel)

53

Tx - generalised demodicosis

- aggressive treatment
- affected areas should be clipped
- total body clip generally advisable

54

How long should Aludex/ Amitrax be used for?

dip at 7 day intervals and continue for 10 weeks until at least 2 successive sets of skin scrapings fail to reveal live mites or eggs

55

In Advocate (Imidacloprid + moxidectin) what carries the acaricidal effect?

Moxidectin component

56

What is Promeris Duo?

Metaflumizone + Amitraz (provides the acaricidal effect)

57

Why do some animals benefit from a prewash with shampoo prior to amitrx treatmetn?

to degrease and descale the skin (might influence the efficacy of spot-ons that rely on skin lipids for absorption and distribution

58

What should you do in cases of canine demodicosis where amitraz and the imidacloprid-moxidectin (Advocate) combination doesn't work or is not tolerated?

give oral ivermectin, milbemycin oxime or moxidectin

59

Describe acaricidal therapy for otodectic mange in dogs and cats

- TOPICAL = Surolan or Canaural, all animals in the house, 2-3 weeks, lack a specific acaricidal component but oily base may suffocate the parasites
- Selamectin (Stronghold) and moxidectin (Advocate) are licensed for this treatment in dogs and cats as a spot on. Resolve any other ectopic infestation too. Costly for many animals
- Ceruminolytics (cases with ear discharge)
- Home cleaning + appropriate environmental agent (Nuvan Staykill, Indorex or Acclaim)

60

How effective are acaricidal products in treating harvest mite infestation?

- very limited data

61

What can be used for treating harvest mite infestation?

DOGS:
- fipronil spray, once monthly, feet and ventrally
- permethrin / pyriproxyfen spot on or spray
CATS:
- selamectin monthly
- fipronil spray possible but may give shorter protection
BOTH:
- limit exposure to infested areas in late summer/ autumn if possible

62

What tick stage(s) can bite dogs?

nymph or adult stage

63

Where is tick treatment most important?

areas at ID risk of vector borne diseases:
- Babesia (Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus)
- Ehrlichia or Hepatozoon (Rhipicephalus)
- Anaplasma or Borrelia (Ixodes)

64

When is the period of prevention for tick infestation for the different species?

- Ixodes (spring and autumn)
- Rhipicephalus (end of spring to mid autumn)
- Dermacentor (autumn to spring)

65

How often are tick treatments repeated, generally-speaking?

Spot on: every 3 (4) weeks
Collars: every 4-7 months
*Under optimal conditions*

66

Outline the use of ivermectin as an ectoparasiticide

- not licensed in dogs or cats
- toxic to Collies and their crosses
- don't use in puppies < 3 months old or kittens
- toxicity possible in any dog (warn owners)
- licensed products should always be used unless inappropriate
- very few circumstances where its use is justified in dogs although licensed products are now available for RABBITS and SMALL MAMMALS.

67

What drugs can you use in dogs against ticks?

- apply at least 2 days before arriving to a high-tick area
- Fipronil-(S)-methoprene spot on
- Pyriprole spot on
- Fipronil-methoprene-amitraz
- Imidacloprid-flumethrin collar
- afoxalaner
- fluralaner

68

What drugs can you use in cats against ticks?

- heavy tick infestations uncommon
- cats cannot be treated with amitraz or permethrin (arguably the most effective agents)
- Fipronil spot-on
- Fipronil-(S)-methoprene spot-on
- Imidacloprid-flumethrin collar

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