Flashcards in PRACTICAL: reptiles Deck (36):
What to check the rostrum of a snake for
- nares should be patent and clear of discharge
- eyes clear, no opacities
Describe snake eyelids
- no moveable eyelids
- transparent spectacle lying over eye which protects cornea
- when skin shed the spectacles may sometimes be retained giving surface of eye a wrinkled appearance
Where might mites be found on snakes?
around eyes, nares, heat pigs (present in some species above upper lip_
Describe snake ears
no external ears are present
When to examine a snake mouth?
end of exam (even very docile snakes!)
- normally have an extra upper row of teeth
- all teeth point backwards
- MM pale pink (pigmented in some animals)
- glottis can be easily visualised and should be observed for any mucoid discharge
T/F: snakes may lack a right lung
False - snakes may lack a leftlung
What is found in cranial third of snake?
- cranial lung
What lies in the middle third of a snake's body?
- lung and air sac(s)
- gall bladder
- cranial SI
What lies in the caudal third of a snake's body?
- repro tract
- fat pads
How to assess snake BCS
- prominence of spine and ribs
- body shape appears more triangular in thin animals
What should snake skin be checked for?
- retained scales (especially at tail tip)
- signs of mites
What should a snake vent be checked for?
- any lesions
- MM colour
How to determine snake sex?
- insert a lubricated probe into cloaca towards direction of tail tip
- MALE: probe should slide in easily for a distance of > 6 scales
- FEMALE: probe should slide in
How might water dragons be hard to handle?
What may happen during examination of a nervous gecko?
may drop tails (regrow in most cases - autotomy- but may take several months and have a different appearance on regrowth)
Describe eyelids in lizards
most lizards have moveable eyelids although some species such as certain types of gecko have a spectacle instead. in those animals with a moveable eyelid, blepharitis and conjunctivitis are not uncommon, while sunken eyes may indicate dehydration
Describe teeth in different lizards
- iguanas and basilisks: shed and replace teeth regularly
- bearded dragons and chameleons: permanent dentition so any damage to the teeth can be more significant. periodontal disease and tartar build up is also more common in these species
Describe mouth of lizards
- MM colour can be variable and may normally have a yellow tinge in lizards such as bearded dragons
- normal tongue morphology may aso vary, with a small fork at the pale tongue tip being normal in this species
Describe lizard coelemic cavity palpation
- 2 fat pads should be easily palpated in most animals. size can gauge BCS in combination with soft tissue covering over the ribs and pelvis
- normal organs cannot be differentiated.
- follicles, eggs, uroliths, FBs or other masses may be palpated
- in geckos a bright light may be shone through body wall to transilluminate internal organs
How to determine sex in bearded dragons and leopard geckos
line of pores cranial to vent (more prominent in male animals and hemipenile bulges may also be visible caudal to the vent in these species
How to determine sex of male veiled chameleons
have a much large casque on top of the head and small tarsal spurs
How can you determine the sex of skinks?
cannot be sexed on clinical exam but require imaging
What may joint swellings in lizards indicate?
What should lizard digits be checked for?
- missing nails
- retained shed skin
Why are missing digits common in geckos?
secondary to dysecdysis
Name 2 types of chelonian
Describe chelonian ears
- no external ear canal
- tympanic scales can be easily visualised (check for swelling and discharge)
T/F: chelonians lack teeth
True - but their keratinous beaks can be strong (overgrown if inappropriate diet or husbandry)
What may reflect systemic health of chelonians?
smoothness, quality of the scutes and shell lesions
What may carapace deformities indicate?
- chronic dehydration
- high protein levels in diet
- combination of factors
What might a red flushing of a chelonian plastron indicate?
- may appear slightly pink if tortoise has just been lifted off a heat mat --> recheck once cool
Why should you squeeze the carapace and plastron?
adult tortoises - no flexibility should be apparent unless they have a hinge
What might help you to auscultate a chelonian heart?
- damp cloth to transmit sound b/w stethoscope and shell.
- doppler probe
How do you judge tortoise BCS?
- very subjective
- a thin tortoise will typically feel empty when picked up
- weight and length ratios may provide a guide of BC in some species but should not be relied upon
How to determine sex in chelonians
- difficult in juveniles
- adult males will normally have a longer tail than females (not totally reliable)
- longer nails on the forefeet of male red-eared terrapins
- differences in iris colour in Eastern box turtles (males have red iris, females have brown iris)