PMVPH: Zoonoses control in food animals Flashcards Preview

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What % of new, emerging or re-emerging human diseases are caused by pathogens that originate from animals or animal products?



Factors for the emergence of zoonoses

environmental changes
human and animal demography
pathogen changes
changes in farming practices
social and cultural factors (food habits, religious beliefs, use of countryside)


List some neglected endemic diseases

anthrax, brucellosis, bovine TB, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, hydatid disease, rabies, human African trypanosomiasis


Transmission pathways of pathogens ?

Pathogens are typically foodborne but can also be transmitted via direct contact or through the environment


What happens with a notifiable disease?

statutory requirement to report a suspicion of a clinical case of disease (Brucella, Bovine TB, avian influenza)


What is a reportable disease?

the report is to be made by the laboratory which isolated the organism from an animal derived sample (salmonella, Brucella)


Who does the Health Protection (Notification) Regualtions 2010 apply to?

Mostly the medical profession


What is RIDDOR?

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurences Regulations. Applies to farms and vet practices.


Give some examples of occupational, non-notifiable zoonoses. 8

Resistant bacteria (AMR)
louping ill
Newcastle disease
Orf (Parapoxvirus) - contagious pustular dermatitis
Toxoplasma gondii
Trychophytum spp (ringworm)


What are the bacteria for which emergence of resistance is a major issue?

Gram negatives


What are the sources of AMR?

environment, production animals, humans, vets, dogs/cats, wildlife, hospitals, meat/eggs/milk


What is LA-MRSA?

Large animal MRSA (affects geese, horses and veal)


Define risk

probability of occurrence and consequences. (e.g. probability to be infected with a pathogen originating from a food producing animal)


What are the 'consequences' in the risk definition?

disease severity, treatment options, duration of illness, costs


What are the elements of risk analysis? 3

Risk assessment - science based
Risk management - policy based
Risk communication - interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risks


What is needed to assess the risk of infection with a pathogen originating from a food animal?

Evidence of prevalence of the hazard in target population
Information about biology of the hazard
Consequences of exposure to humans


What is CoSHH?

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (produced by HSE)
-barrier precautions
-good hygiene
-sanitation and disinfection
appropriate waste disposal
-proper use of isolation facilities
-education of animal owners


What is PPE?

Personal Protective Equipment


What PPE is recommended for use during parturition or handling of conception products?

Levels 4 and 5 (e.g. protective clothing, gloves, surgical mask, goggles and face shield)


What are the 4 main things CoSHH does?

- Assess the risks to health
- Prevents or controls exposure
- Introduces and maintains control measures
- Regularly reviews risks assessments and control measure efficacy


How does CoSHH adivse farms?

vaccinate and worm
avoid contaminating animal drinking water
routine health checks by vet
implement Herd Health Plan
good animal husbandry and management practices
implement biosecurity
promote use of PPE
follow good personal hygiene
inform, instruct and train employees and visitors
detect and report human and animal diseases
control pests and vermin


Why is under-reporting of occupational zoonoses often a problem?

lack of awareness (esp rural areas)
subclinical infection
clinical signs minor and not perceived to require medical attention
negative impact (farmers and employees)


What happened at Godstone Farm, 2009 (Aug-Sep)?

E.coli O157 outbreak. >93 people infected, mostly children, youngest was 4 years old, dialysis because of kidney failure, farm remained open for 1 month after first case before being fully closed.


What causes Q fever? Where was there a significant outbreak?

Widespread outbreak of Coxiella burnetti, linked to outbreaks of abortions in dairy goat farms, poor management of disposal of abortion materials and of manure reported., testing and culling ensued, mandatory vaccination, ban of breeding of milking sheep and goats in farms > 50 animals (up to July 2010), waste management recommendations, hygiene protocols for all dairy goat and sheep farms.

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