Flashcards in CAL - Care of the anaesthetised patient Deck (17)
List 3 reasons why we should give IV fluids to animals undergoing anaesthesia.
1. to maintain an open vein
2. to compensate for 'relative hypovolaemia'
3. to replace blood losess.
Define CSL (crystalloid fluid)
Compound Sodium Lactate (isotonic and balanced - contains electrolytes in similar concentrations to plasma)
List 6 causes of tachycardia in an anaesthetised animal
- inadequate anaesthesia
- hypovolaemia/ hypotension
How might we be able to distinguish between a tachycardia caused by anaesthesia being 'too light' and that caused by hypovolaemia?
1. has the animal bled into a body cavity
2. estimate volume of blood loss
3. measure BP
What is suggested if pulse rate and BP increase in parallel leading to tachycardia?
the level of analgesia is inadequate
What is suggested if pulse rate increases as BP decreases?
hypovolaemia much more likely than inadequate anaesthesia.
Define 2nd degree AV block
some P-waves are not followed by QRS complexes
What is a side effect of medetomidine pre-meds?
2nd degree AV block (medetomidine causes an initial hypertension due to vasoconstriction but there is a baroreflex mediated reduction in HR. Even if BP is normal., HR < 40bpm needs to be treated.)
What is the risk of giving atropine soon after medetomidine?
What is the best way to antagonise medetomidine?
What is the most appropriate treatment for hypotension? 3
reducing amount of anaesthetic delivered, giving crystalloid fluid bolus up to 10ml/kg, consider positive inotrope (e.g. dopamine or dobutamine) if no response.
What is the most appropriate treatment for hypercapnia?
treat by ventilation of the lungs – IPPV.
What is the most appropriate treatment for hypoxaemia? 3
increase FiO2 if possible, check BP and treat if low, IPPV.
What is the most appropriate treatment for ventricular tachycardia? 3
if sustained and associated with haemodynamic compromise (i.e. low BP) should be treated with lidocaine, bolus of 1.5mg/kg IV followed by CRI given IV of 50mcg/kg/min
What is the first line of treatment for sinus bradycardia?
atropine (or glycopyrrolate
What is the first line of treatment for sinus bradycardia that is a baroreflex response to hypertension (e.g. after administration of medetomidine)?
atropine is not indicated therefore glycopyrrolate instead