Flashcards in Rabbit, rodent and ferret anaesthesia Deck (48)
How does small size affect anaesthesia
- venous access
- anaesthetic monitoring
- haemorrhage significance
- easily stressed (prey)
- often have SC disease
- difficult to assess pain (prey)
- rapid metabolism
- post-anaesthetic ileus common
- short lifespan
What are pre-GA considerations for small mammals?
- full CE for underlying problems
- obtain accurate weight
- bloods (geriatric or sick, never in rodents)
How much blood can be taken form a small mammal?
only 0.5%-1% bodyweight
Outline steps of stabilisation - 2
- appropriate hospitalisation
- tx underlying disease
- gut stimulants
What is the maintenance fluid requirement for small mammals?
100ml/kg/day (i.e. twice that of dogs and cats!)
How can fluids be administered to small mammals?
SC, oral, IV or intra-peritoneal (IP) - vary routes with large volumes
What should you add to SC fluids?
Hyaluronidase 1500IU/L to help absorption
How do you place an IV catheter?
Clip and apply topical EMLA cream 45-60 minutes prior to catheter placement. Good restraint. Place after sedation only in VERY jumpy rabbits.
What should you be careful of when using the marginal ear vein?
artery in similar location
When do you fast small mammals?
Not necessary in rabbits or rodents.
Necessary in ferrets (4-6 hours) to prevent regurgitation and aspiration.
What 3 types of analgesic can be given?
How can pain be assessed in rabbits?
Difficult, currently much research is going into developing a pain score which includes signs such as:
- cheeks tucked up
- ears tightly back
- eyes half-closed
What other drugs might be given prior to induction?
Underlying problem tx
Prevent of likely complications (gut stimulant - ranitidine)
Why shouldn't gas anaesthesia be used? 5
- Apnoea (may be fatal)
- Dose-dependent cardio-pulmonary depression
- Irritates MM (increased ocular discharge and salivation)
- No analgesia
What are the benefits of gaseous induction? 4
- rapid adjustment to depth
- rapid recovery
- useful if hepatic or renal compromise.
How can gaseous induction be improved?
- Consider pre-meds (opioid and midazolam combinations or Hypnorm at low doses)
- Sevoflurane less irritant than isoflurane
- quiet, dimly lit environment
What drugs are in Hypnorm? 2
Fentanyl and fluanisone
What do you need to know about Hypnorm?
Currently unavailable. Only licensed sedative for rabbits/rodents. Provides deep sedation but respiratory depression --> long recoveries.
How can you achieve gas induction (i.e. equipment)?
chamber or mask
What do you use in IM or SC induction?
TRIPLE combination - alpha2 agonist and ketamine +/- opioid
Benefits - IM or SC induction - 3
easily reversed --> rapid recovery
Disadvantages - IM or SC induction - 2
What should always happen with IV induction?
Always pre-med first
What can you use for IV induction?
Propofol OR alfaxalone
Benefits - IV induction - 2
Rapid induction and rapid recovery
Disadvantages - IV induction - 3
IV access required
Significant resp. depression if quick infusion
Additional analgesia will be necessary.
Is intubation recommended for EVERY rabbit and ferret anaesthetic?
What are the coniditions for intubation?
don't attempt >3 times (laryngeal damage)
Name 5 intubation techniques
2. visual (otoscope)
3. visual (laryngoscope)
5. laryngeal mask