Rabbit, rodent and ferret anaesthesia Flashcards Preview

Principles of Science BVetMed 3 > Rabbit, rodent and ferret anaesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rabbit, rodent and ferret anaesthesia Deck (48)
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1

How does small size affect anaesthesia

- venous access
- intubation
- thermoregulation
- anaesthetic monitoring
- haemorrhage significance
- easily stressed (prey)
- often have SC disease
- difficult to assess pain (prey)
- rapid metabolism
- post-anaesthetic ileus common
- short lifespan

2

What are pre-GA considerations for small mammals?

- full CE for underlying problems
- obtain accurate weight
- bloods (geriatric or sick, never in rodents)

3

How much blood can be taken form a small mammal?

only 0.5%-1% bodyweight

4

Outline steps of stabilisation - 2

- appropriate hospitalisation
- fluids
- nutrition
- analgesia
- tx underlying disease
- gut stimulants

5

What is the maintenance fluid requirement for small mammals?

100ml/kg/day (i.e. twice that of dogs and cats!)

6

How can fluids be administered to small mammals?

SC, oral, IV or intra-peritoneal (IP) - vary routes with large volumes

7

What should you add to SC fluids?

Hyaluronidase 1500IU/L to help absorption

8

How do you place an IV catheter?

Clip and apply topical EMLA cream 45-60 minutes prior to catheter placement. Good restraint. Place after sedation only in VERY jumpy rabbits.

9

What should you be careful of when using the marginal ear vein?

artery in similar location

10

When do you fast small mammals?

Not necessary in rabbits or rodents.
Necessary in ferrets (4-6 hours) to prevent regurgitation and aspiration.

11

What 3 types of analgesic can be given?

NSAIDs
Opioids
Tramadol

12

How can pain be assessed in rabbits?

Difficult, currently much research is going into developing a pain score which includes signs such as:
- cheeks tucked up
- ears tightly back
- eyes half-closed
- tense

13

What other drugs might be given prior to induction?

Underlying problem tx
Prevent of likely complications (gut stimulant - ranitidine)

14

Why shouldn't gas anaesthesia be used? 5

- Apnoea (may be fatal)
- Stress
- Dose-dependent cardio-pulmonary depression
- Irritates MM (increased ocular discharge and salivation)
- No analgesia

15

What are the benefits of gaseous induction? 4

- rapid
- rapid adjustment to depth
- rapid recovery
- useful if hepatic or renal compromise.

16

How can gaseous induction be improved?

- Consider pre-meds (opioid and midazolam combinations or Hypnorm at low doses)
- Sevoflurane less irritant than isoflurane
- quiet, dimly lit environment

17

What drugs are in Hypnorm? 2

Fentanyl and fluanisone

18

What do you need to know about Hypnorm?

Currently unavailable. Only licensed sedative for rabbits/rodents. Provides deep sedation but respiratory depression --> long recoveries.

19

How can you achieve gas induction (i.e. equipment)?

chamber or mask

20

What do you use in IM or SC induction?

TRIPLE combination - alpha2 agonist and ketamine +/- opioid

21

Benefits - IM or SC induction - 3

deep sedation
good analgesia
easily reversed --> rapid recovery

22

Disadvantages - IM or SC induction - 2

respiratory depression
bradycardia

23

What should always happen with IV induction?

Always pre-med first

24

What can you use for IV induction?

Propofol OR alfaxalone

25

Benefits - IV induction - 2

Rapid induction and rapid recovery

26

Disadvantages - IV induction - 3

IV access required
Significant resp. depression if quick infusion
Additional analgesia will be necessary.

27

Is intubation recommended for EVERY rabbit and ferret anaesthetic?

YES

28

What are the coniditions for intubation?

adequate sedation
pre-oxygenate first
don't attempt >3 times (laryngeal damage)

29

Name 5 intubation techniques

1. blind
2. visual (otoscope)
3. visual (laryngoscope)
4. endoscopic
5. laryngeal mask

30

Outline the steps in blind intubation

- preoxygenate
- check mouth - food/debris
- position rabbit with nose to ceiling
- introduce tube and listen for breathing sounds
- advance tube towards sounds.

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