Articulations: general features Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Articulations: general features Deck (94):
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articulation

place of contact between bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bones and teeth

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arthrology

scientific study of joints

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Kinesiology

study of the functional relationship or biomechanics of the skeleton, joints, muscles, nerves

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Fibrous joints

lack a joint cavity and are held together by dense (fibrous) connective tissue

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Cartilaginous joints

lack a joint cavity and the bones are joined together by cartilage

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Synovial joints

fluid-filled joint cavity that separates the articulating surfaces of the bones and these articulating surfaces are enclosed within a capsule and supported by ligaments

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Synarthroses

immovable joints

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Amphiarthroses

slightly movable joints

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Diathroses

freely moveable joints

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pseudoarthroses

false joints that occur when a fractured long bone heals i as two separate bones

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What are the fibrous joints

Gomphoses, sutures, syndesmoses

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Gomphoses

articulations of the roots of the individual teeth with the alveoli

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What does gomphoses mean

bolt condition

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periodontal ligaments

fibrous tissue around the tooth holding it into the alveoli

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What does periodontal mean

around tooth

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Another name for periodontal ligaments

periodontal membrane

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Sutures

articulation of the flat bones of the skull

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What does suture mean

seam

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When do sutures form

about 15-24 months

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Synostoses

bone on bone

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syndesmoses

interosseous membrane between radius and ulna, tibia and fibula

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What does syndesmoses mean

a fastening

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What functional type of joint is a syndesmoses

Amphiarthroses (slight movement)

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What functional type of joint is a suture

synarthroses (immoveable)

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What functional type of joint is a gomphoses

Synarthroses (immoveable)

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Synchondroses

joined together by hyaline cartilage

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What functional type of joint is a synchondroses

synarthroses (immoveable)

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What joints are synchondroses

Epiphyseal growth plates, costochondral articulations between most of the ribs

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Symphyses

pad of fibrocartilage between the articulating bones

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What does symphyses mean

growing together

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What functional type of joint is a symphyses

amphiarthroses

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What joints are symphyses

pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

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What are the cartilaginous joints

synchondroses, symphyses

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What functional type of joint are synovial joints

diarthrotic

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glenohumeral joint

shoulder joint

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temporomandibular joint

jaw

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tibiofemoral joint

knee

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double-jointed

hypermobility

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Marfan's syndrome

genetic disorder of human connective tissue

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What is affected by marfan's syndrome

heart valves and aorta, lungs, eyes, dural sac surrounding the spinal cord, skeleton, and hard palate

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What physical characteristics do people with marfan's syndrome display

unusually tall, with long limbs and long, thin fingers

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What causes marfan's syndrome

misfolding of the protein fibrillin-1

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Articular capsule

outer layer called the fibrous capsule and an inner layer called the synovial membrane

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Fibrous capsule

dense connective tissue and it strengths the joint to prevent the bones from being pulled apart

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synovial membrane

connective tissue and lines all parts of the joint cavity except for surfaces of the articulating bones

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synovial fluid

viscous oily fluid that lubricates the articulating bones and their articular cartilage

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joint cavity

space that contains a small amount of synovial fluid

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What type of cartilage is articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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ligaments

connect bone to bone

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What does ligament men

bands or bandages

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bursae

saclike structures that contain synovial fluid and are lined by a synovial membrane. help alleviate friction

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Where are bursae found

between muscles or within an area where a tendon passes over a bone

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tendon sheaths

modified, elongated bursae that wrap around a tendon to reduce friction

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fat pads

distributed along the periphery of a synovial joint, and as a packing material and provide some protection for the joint

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tendons

tendons attach muscle to bone

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uniaxial

one plane

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biaxial

two planes

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multiaxial

two planes and can rotate

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planar joints (gliding)

intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, joints between the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae

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Hinge joints

uniaxial joints in which the convex surface of one articulating bone fits into a concave depression on the other bone (moves like the hinge of a door)

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Examples of hinge joints

elbow, knee, ankle, between bones of fingers, metacarpophalangeal joint of finger #1

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Pivot joints

uniaxial joints in which one articulating bone with a rounded surface fits into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone

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Examples of pivot joints

proximal radioulnar joint, atlantoaxial joint

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condyloid joints

biaxial joints with an oval, convex surface on one bone that articulates with a concave articular surface on the second bone of the joint

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example of condyloid joints

knuckles, radiocarpal joint

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Saddle joints

biaxial joints that have a concave surface in one direction and a convex surface in another

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examples of saddle joints

first carpometacarpal joint (on the thumb), sternoclavicular joint, malleus and incus

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ball-and-socket joints

multiaxial joints in which the spherical articulating head of one bone fits into the rounded socket of a second bone

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Examples of ball-and-socket joints

hip joint, shoulder joint

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Gliding

two opposing surfaces sliding back and forth or side to side

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Example of gliding

carpals and tarsals

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Angular motion

either increases or decreases the angle between two bones

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Flexion

movement in an anterior-posterior plane of the body that decreases the angle between bones

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examples of flexion

bending elbow, bending knee, bending fingers into fist, bending neck forward

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extension

movement in an anterior-posterior plane that increases the angle between bones

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Examples of extensions

straightening elbow, straightening knee, straightening the fingers, or extending the neck so it is straight up

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hyperextension

extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees

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opisthotonos

arching of the back due to muscle contraction. caused by tetanus

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lateral flexion

trunk of body moves in a coronal plane away from the body

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Abduction

move away, lateral movement of the body part away from the body midline

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adduction

move toward, medial movement of a body part toward the body midline

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circumduction

circular motion of distal part of body

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Rotational motion

pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own longitudinal axis

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pronation

medial rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is directed posteriorly

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supination

lateral rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is directed anteriorly

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Depression

inferior movement of part of the body

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Elevation

superior movement of part of the body

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Dorsiflexion

ankle is ben such that the superior surface of the foot and toes move towards the head

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plantarflexion

ankle is bent such that the toes move away from the head

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Inversion

movement of the plantar surface inward or medially

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eversion

movement of the plantar surface outward or laterally

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protraction

movement of a body part anteriorly in a horizontal plane

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retraction

posterior movement of a protracted body part so anatomic position is resumed

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opposition

movement of the thumb toward the palm