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Flashcards in Vessels and Circulation Deck (88):
1

Anastomosis

the site where two or more arteries (or veins) merge to supply the same body region

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End arteries

arteries that do not form anastomoses

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companion vessels

when an artery travels with a corresponding vein

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tunics

layers of blood vessels

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lumen

inside space of the blood vessels

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tunica intima

innermost layer of the blood vessel wall

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tunic media

middle layer of the vessel wall and is composed of circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells

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tunic externa

outermost layer of a blood vessel wall, is composed of connective tissue that contains elastic and collagen fibers

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What is the thickest layer in arteries

tunica media

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what is the thickest layer in veins

tunica externa

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What layers do capillaries have

only the tunica intima

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Elastic arteries

the largest arteries, with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 1 centimeter

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What are the elastic arteries mentioned in the book

Aorta, pulmonary, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian, common iliac arteries

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muscular arteries

have diameters ranging from 1 centimeter to 3 millimeters. These are most of the named arteries that aren't the elastic arteries

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arterioles

diameters ranging from 3 millimeters to 10 micrometers

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capillaries

smallest blood vessels, connect arterioles to venules. have a diameter of 8-10 micrometers

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sickle-cell disease

caused by inheritance of a gene for abnormal hemoglobin. causes blockages and infarctions in the body organs

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interstial fluid

the fluid surrounding tissues

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continuous apillaries

the most common type, endothelial cells form a complete, continuous lining and are connected by tight junctions

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fenestrated capillaries

have fenestrations within each endothelial cell and are seen where a great deal of fluid transport occurs between the blood and interstitial fluid of the tissues

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sinusoids

tend to be wider, larger vessels with openings that allow for transport of larger materials, such as proteins or cells

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veins

drain capillaries and return blood to the heart

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how much of the bodies blood do veins hold

about 60%

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venules

the smallest veins, measuring from 8 to 100 micrometers in diameter

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when does a venule turn into a vein

when its diameter is greater than 100 micrometers

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what forms the one-way valves of veins

tunica intima and strengthened by elastic and collagen fibers

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let and right coronary arteries

emerge immediately from the wall of the ascending aorta and supply the heart

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aortic arch

ascending aorta curves towards the left side of the body

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thre main arterial branches that emerge from the aortic arch

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery

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brachiocephalic trunk

bifurcates into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery

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right common carotid artery

supplies arterial blood to the right side of the head and neck

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right subclavian artery

supplies arterial blood to the right upper limb and some thoracic structures

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left common carotid artery

supplies the left side of the head and neck

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left subclavian artery

supplies the left upper limb and some thoracic structures

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Aortic transections

typically fatal

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aortic dissections

overall about 90% fatal and are very painful

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what supplies most of the blood to the head and neck

left and right common carotid arteries

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external carotid artery

supplies structures external to the skull

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internal carotid artery

supplies internal skull structures

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carotid sinus

near where the common carotid artery splits (superior border of the thyroid cartilage) it contains pressure sensors which monitor blood pressure

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baroreceptors

pressure sensors

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superficial temporal artery

a branch of the external carotid artery that pulsates vigorously when persons have a headache

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vertebral arteris

emerge from the subclavian arteries and travel through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum, where they merge to form the basilar artery

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circle of willis

cerebral arterial circle. an important anastomosis of arteries around the sella turcica

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descending thoracic aorta

aortic arch curves and projects inferiorly.

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bronchial arteries

three or four small arteries that emerge as tiny branches from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta. supply the bronchi, bronchioles, and connective tissue

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esophageal arteries

several small arteries that emerge from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta and supply the esophagus

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left gastric artery

supplies arterial blood to the abdominal portion of the esophagus

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arteries that supply the diaphragm

superior phrenic arteries, musculophrenic arteries, inferior phrenic arteries

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superior phrenic arteries

arise from the descending thoracic aorta

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musculophrenic arteries

arise from branches of the subclavian arteries

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inferior phrenic arteries

emerge from the descending abdominal aorta

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descending abdominal aorta

when the descending thoracic aorta extend inferior to the diaphragm

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celiac trunk

located immediately inferior to the aortic opening through the diaphragm.

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three branches of the celiac trunk

left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery

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left gastric artery

supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach and extends some branches to the esophagus

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Splenic artery

supplies the spleen, part of the stomach, and the pancreas.

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common hepatic artery

supplies the liver, gallbladder, part of the stomach, the duodenum, and the pancreas

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superior mesenteric artery

located immediately inferior to the celiac trunk. supplies: most of the small intestine, pancreas, proximal portion of the large intestine

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inferior mesenteric artery

most inferior of the three unpaired arteries that arise from the descending abdominal aorta. supplies: part of the transverse colon, part of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum.

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middle suprarenal arteries

supplies each adrenal glad

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renal arteries

supply each kidney

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gonadal arteries

supply each gonad

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where does the descending abdominal aorta bifurcate

fourth lumbar vertebrae

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What does the descending abdominal aorta bifurcation into

left and right common iliac artery

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internal iliac artery

branch of the common iliac artery. supplies the pelvic and perineal structures

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external iliac artery

branch of the common iliac artery. supplies the lower limb

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what are the main arterial vessels of the upper and lower limbs

subclavian artery for the upper limb
femoral artery for the lower limb

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subclavian artery

supplies blood to each upper limb

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where does the right subclavian artery emerge from

the brachiocephalic trunk

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axillary artery

the subclavian artery after it passes over the lateral border of the first rib

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brachial artery

the axillary artery passes over the lateral border of the teres major muscle

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ulnar artery

brachial artery branches in the cubital fossa. courses down the medial side of the forearm

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radial artery

brachial artery branches in the cubital fossa. courses down the lateral side of the forearm.

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superficial palmar arch

formed primarily from the ulnar artery

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deep palmar arch

formed primarily from the radial artery

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digital arteries

emerge from the arches to supply the fingers

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external iliac artery

the main arterial supply for the lower limb. is a branch of the common iliac artery

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femoral artery

external iliac artery after it travels inferior to the inguinal ligament

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deep femoral artery

emerges from the femoral artery to supply the hip joint and many of the thigh muscles

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popliteal artery

the femoral artery passed into the region behind the knee. supplies the knee joint and muscles in this region

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what does the the popliteal artery divide into

anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery

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anterior tibial artery

supplies the anterior compartment of the leg

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posterior tibial artery

supplies the posterior compartment of the leg

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fibular artery

extends from the posterior tibial artery. supplies the lateral compartment of the leg

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what does the posterior tibial artery branch into

the medial plantar artery and the lateral plantar artery

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dorsalis pedis artery

anterior tibial artery crossing over the the anterior side of the ankle.

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plantar arch

the dorsalis pedis artery and a branch of the lateral plantar artery uniting.