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Flashcards in respiratory system final Deck (68):
1

upper respiratory tract is composed of

nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, structures associated with the above

2

nose

the main conducting airway for inhaled air

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another name for nostrils

external nares

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roof of the nasal cavity is formed by

frontal bones, nasal bones, cribriform plate of the ethmoid, sphenoid bone

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the floor of the nasal cavity is formed by

horizontal plate of the maxillae, horizontal portions of the palatine bones

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vestibule

anterior region of the nasal cavity, near the nostrils

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vibrissae

coarse hairs near the vestibule used to trap large particles

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nasal septum

divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions

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what forms the nasal septum

septal cartilage, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, vomer bone

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another name for conchae

turbinates

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nasal cycle

alternating inactivation of one side of the nose

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paranasal sinuses

paired air spaces in the skull

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What are the paranasal sinuses

frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, maxillary

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pharynx

common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems

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nasopharynx

superiormost region of the pharynx, lined with ciliated epithelium

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auditory tubes

in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx and connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear so air pressure can be equalized behind the ear drum

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pharyngeal tonsil

in the posterior nasopharynx, commonly called the adenoids

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oropharynx

the middle pharyngeal region, is immediately posterior to the oral cavity

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What passes through the oropharynx

both food and air

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palatine tonsils

on the lateral wall of the oropharynx. the ones you can see in the mirror

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lingual tonsils

at the base of the tongue

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laryngopharynx

inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx. extends inferiorly from the hyoid bone and is continuous with the larynx and esophagus

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Lower respiratory tract is made up of

larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and associated structures

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Another name for larynx

voice box

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larynx

a short, somewhat cylindrical airway that is bounded superiorly by the laryngopharynx and posteriorly by the esophagus and inferiorly by the trachea

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functions of the larynx

passageway for air, prevent swallowed materials from entering the lower respiratory tract, sounds of speech, increases pressure in the abdominal cavity

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valsalva maneuver

the epiglottis closes over the larynx so air cannot escape; simultaneously abdominal muscles contract to increase abdominal pressure

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thyroid cartilage

forms only the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx

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laryngeal prominence

Adam's apple; V-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage

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cricoid cartilage

ring-shaped, forms the inferior base of the larynx and connects to the trachea inferiorly

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cricothyroid ligament

dense connective tissue band, attaches the cricoid cartilage to the inferior edge of the thyroid cartilage. is 4 fingers width above the sternal notch

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cricothyrotomy

an emergency airway, sometimes opened in the larynx by making an incision through the cricothyroid ligment

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what is the epiglottis formed by

elastic cartilage

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vallecula

a little valley found at the base of the tongue and anterior to the base of the epiglottis

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vestibular ligaments

the superior ligaments of the larynx

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vestibular folds

vestibular ligaments and the mucous membrane covering them. known as the false vocal cords

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vocal ligaments

inferior ligaments of the larynx.

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vocal fold

vocal ligaments with the mucous membrane covering them. known as the true vocal cords

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rima glottidis

the opening between the vocal folds

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glottis

the rima glottidis plus the vocal folds

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trachea

a flexible, slightly rigid tubular organ often referred to as the windpipe

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What holds the open ends of each C-shaped piece of the trachea

the trachealis muscle and by elastic, ligamentous membrane

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primary bronchi

at the level of the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates into two smaller tubes

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carina

an internal ridge formed by the most inferior tracheal cartilage separating the primary bronchi at the origin

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bronchial tree

a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right primary bronchi and progressively branch into narrower tubes as they diverge throughout the lungs before ending in the terminal bronchioles

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hilum

the medial surface of the lung

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secondary bronchi

branches of the primary bronchi

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how many secondary bronchi does each lung have

right has three, left as two

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tertiary bronchi

secondary bronchi branch into these even smaller bronchi

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bronchioles

the smaller tubules that are no longer lined with cilia. have no irregular plates of cartilage in their walls

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bronchoconstriction

smooth muscle contraction narrowing bronchioles

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bronchodilation

smooth muscle relaxation dilating bronchioles

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what does the respiratory portion of the respiratory system consist of

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and pulmonary alveoli

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respiratory bronchioles

smaller branches of terminal broncioles

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alveolar ducts

smaller branches of respiratory bronchioles

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alveolus

where gas exchange occurs. `

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how many alveoli do the lungs contain

300-400 million

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alveolar macrophages

migratory cells that continually crawl within the alveoli, engulfing microorganisms or particulate material that has reached the alveoli

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pleura

lung outer surfaces and adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined by this serous membrane

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bronchopulmonary segments

sections of each lung with their own tertiary bronchus, surrounded by connective tissue, and each with its own arterial and venous blood supply

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bronchial circulation

a component of the systemic circulation and consists of tiny bronchial arteries and veins that supply the bronchi and bronchioles of the lung

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bronchial arteries

branch from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta and divide to form capillary beds to supply structures in the bronchial tree

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bronchial veins

collect venous blood from the bronchial tree and drain into the azygous system of veins

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pulmonary ventilation

breathing

65

what innervates the trachea bronchial tree, and lungs

autonomic nervous system

66

what is the main function of the sypathetic innervation

to open up and dilate the bronchioles

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what is the main function of the parasymphatetic innervation

to decrease the airway diameter of teh bronchioles

68

Chronic obsturctive pulmonary disease

ephysema and chronic bronchitis