Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (119):
0

Integument

Skin

1

Cutaneous layer

Skin

2

Integumentary system consists of:

Skin, nails, hair, skin glands

3

Homeostasis

Internal environmental balance

4

Dermatology

Scientific study and treatment of the Integumentary system

5

Integument tissues:

Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, vascular tissue, nervous tissue

6

Distinct layers of integument:

Epidermis, dermis (hypodermis is not actually apart of Integumentary system)

7

Deep to the dermis is what layer

Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

8

Small population of immune cells in skin

Epidermal dendritic cells

9

Vasoconstriction

Blood vessels constricting

10

Vasodilation

Blood vessels dilate

11

Functions of integument

Protection, prevention of water loss, temperature regulation, metabolic regulation, sensory reception, excretion by means of secretion

12

Rickets

Softening and weakening of bones from lack of vitamin D

13

Layers of epidermis

Stratum Basale, stratum Spinosum, stratum Granulosum, stratum Lucidum, stratum Croneum

14

Types of cells in Stratum Basale:

Keratinocyte, Melanocyte, tactile (merkel)

15

Keratinocyte

Most abundant cell type in epidermis. Found throughout all the epidermal strata. Get their name from their ability to synthesize the protein keratin

16

Keratin

A family of fibrous structural proteins that are both tough and insoluble

17

Cytokeratin

Keratin found in epidermal cells

18

Melanocytes

Long branching processes and see scattered among the basal cells of the stratum Basale. Produce melanin

19

Melanin

Pigment in the skin

20

Tactile cells

Few in number and sedative to touch. Located in the stratum Basale.

21

Merkel cells

Few in number and sensitive to touch. Located in the stratum Basale. Also known as tactile cells

22

Epidermal dendritic cells

Small population of immune cells

23

Vitamin D is essential for the processing of what

Calcium and phosphorus

24

Excessive sunlight can lead to:

Suppressed immunity, skin damage, increased risk of cancer

25

The skin can detect

Heat, cold, touch, pressure, texture, and vibration

26

The skin eliminates waste products such as:

Water, salt, urea

27

Stratum germinativum

Stratum Basale and stratum Spinosum together

28

Stratum Spinosum contains what type of cells

Keratinocytes and phagoctic cells (epidermal dendritic cells

29

Stratum granulosum

Consists of 3 to 5 layers of Keratinocytes. The cells begin to die and fill up with keratin.

30

Keratinization

When Keratinocytes die and fill up with keratin

31

Stratum lucidum

Thin,clear region of two to three layers of flat dead cells. Only found on soles, palms, and lips

32

Stratum corneum

20 - 30 layers of flattened, dead, scale like cells which contain large amounts of Keratin. Most superficial layer

33

Cornification

After keratinization when cells become hard

34

How does a callus form?

Friction at the skin surface stimulates additional mitotic activity if the stratum Basale, resulting in thicker skin in that localized area

35

Where does tattooing occur?

Below stratum basale

36

What does thick skin not contain?

Hair follicles and sebaceous glands

37

What does thick skin contain?

Sweat glands

38

What does thin skin contain?

Sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands

39

What contributes to skin color?

Melanin, hemoglobin, carotene

40

What does melanin protect?

DNA from UV light

41

Where is hemoglobin found?

In Erythrocytes

42

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

43

What color is deoxygenated blood

Dark red or maroon

44

What does blood appear blue?

Subcutaneous fat absorbs low-frequency light; permitting only the highly energetic blue wavelengths to penetrate through to the dark vein

45

What is carotene?

The weakest of the skin pigments. It's a yellow-orange pigment that is acquired by eating various yellow-orange vegetables.

46

Where does carotene normally accumulate?

Inside Keratinocytes of the stratum corneum and within the subcutaneous fat

47

What does carotene convert to?

Vitamin A

48

Albinism

A lack of melanin production caused by an inherited recessive condition which an enzyme needed to synthesize melanin is nonfunctional, so privileged Melanocytes cannot produce melanin

49

Vitiligo

Depigmentation of parts of the skin. It occurs when Melanocytes die or are unable to function. The cause of vitiligo is unknown, but research suggests that it may arise from autoimmune, genetic, oxidative stress, neural, or viral causes.

50

Cyanosis

Caused by reduced oxygenation of hemoglobin in blood vessels. Skin turns blue

51

Acrocyanosis

Cyanosis in the hands or extremities

52

Pallor

Caused by a deficiency of erythrocytes, a deficiency of hemoglobin, or both

53

Jaundice

Caused by the hemoglobin breakdown product bilirubin

54

Erythema

Caused by increased blood in the dermis because of dilated blood vessels. Can be causd by sunburn, excess heat, emotions, or infections

55

Postmortem lividity

When blood pools at the lowest point of the body 1 to 2 hours after death. Initially blanches when squeezed. After 8 hours will not blanch when squeezed.

56

Livor mortis

When blood pools at the lowest point of the body 1 to 2 hours after death. Initially blanches when squeezed. After 8 hours will not blanch when squeezed.

57

Dermis

Deeper and thicker layer than the epidermis

58

Dermis has how many layers?

2. Papillary layer and reticulatr layer

59

What does the dermis do?

Nourish the living portion of the epidermis and the numerous supportive components of the skin

60

What is contained within the dermis?

Collagen, vascular tissue, many epithelial glands, it's extensively innervated, and has elastic fibers

61

Papillary layer

Upper layer of the dermis

62

Stratum papillarosum

Upper layer of the dermis

63

Dermal papillae

Projections which extend from the upper layer of the dermis into the epidermis. They interlock with epidermal ridges

64

Epidermal ridges

Deep inward projections of the epidermis

65

What causes friction ridges?

The upward and downward waves of the papillary layer that contribute to friction ridges

66

Does the papillary layer contain nerve endings?

Yes

67

Reticular layer

The deeper major portion of the dermis and extends from the thin, overlying papillary layer to the underlying subcutaneous layer.

68

Stratum reticularosum

The deeper major portion of the dermis and extends from the thin, overlying papillary layer to the underlying subcutaneous layer.

69

Another word for Reticular layer is

Stratum reticularosum

70

Reticular means?

Network. Referring to the mesh work of collagen and elastic fibers that contribute you the skins strength and elasticity

71

Striae

Stretch marks

72

Linea albincantes

Stretch marks

73

Causes of striae

Rapid stretching of the Reticular layer. Pregnancy, teen growth spurts, excessive weight gain, and anabolic steroid use. It tears the collagen fibers

74

Lines of cleavage

Linear orientation of collagen and elastic fibers in different regions of the body.

75

Tension lines

Linear orientation of collagen and elastic fibers in different regions of the body.

76

Causes of Linea albicantes

Rapid stretching of the Reticular layer. Pregnancy, teen growth spurts, excessive weight gain, and anabolic steroids

77

Bed sores

Decubitus ulcers

78

Decubitus ulcers

Bed sores

79

What cause Decubitus ulcers?

Pressure cutting off blood circulation to boney parts of the body

80

Subcutaneous therapeutic injection

Injection in the subcutaneous blood supply

81

Liposuction

When a blunt hollow tube is roughly inserted into the subcutaneous layer so that fat can be auctioned out

82

What does the hypodermis do?

Cushions, insulates, and helps regulate temperature

83

What do nails do?

Serve to protect the digits and assist in grasping small objects.

84

What forms nails?

Hardened, transparent, stratum corneum

85

The cells that form the nails are?

Densely packed together and filled with parallel fibers of hard keratin

86

Why do toenails grow slower than finger nails?

The blood supply to the toes is less than to the fingers

87

Another word for hair?

Pili

88

What is pili?

Hair

89

Where is piling absent?

Sides and soles of the feet, the lips, the sides of the fingers and toes, and portions of the external genitalia

90

Pilus

Single hair

91

What is piling composed of?

Keratinized cells growing from a hair follicle that extends deep into the dermis, often projecting into the underlying subcutaneous layer.

92

Where is hair produced?

Epidermal layer

93

Hair bulb

Consists of epithelial cells and is a swelling at the base of the hair follicle where the hair originates

94

Root

The remainder of the hair within the follicle but outside the bulb

95

Shaft

The portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface

96

Hair follicle

An oblique tube the that surrounds the hair. The follicle always extends into the dermis and sometimes into the subcutaneous layer. it has an inner sheath of epithelial cells

97

Arrector pili muscles

Thin ribbons of smooth muscle extending from the connective tissue sheath around the hair follicle to the connective tissue of the dermal papillae.

98

What do Arrector pili muscles do?

Arrector pili muscles contract pulling on the follicles, which elevates the hairs and cause "goose bumps"

99

Functions of hair

Protection, heat retention, facial expression, sensory reception, visual identification, chemical signal dispersal

100

Hairs help disperse what?

Pheromones

101

What detects pheromones?

The vomeronasal organ in the human nose

102

What determines hair color?

Hair color is determined by the type and amount of pigment produced in the stratum Basale cells at the base of the hair follicle

103

What leads to darker hair?

More melanin

104

What causes red hair?

A special iron based pigment

105

What causes gray hair?

A gradual reduction of melanin

106

What causes white hair?

A lack of pigment entirely

107

What are the causes of hair loss?

Dietary deficiency, high fever, radiation, drugs, aging, genetics, or changes in hormone levels

108

Where do the glands off the skin originate and where are they located?

They originate from the epidermal layer and they are located in the dermis

109

Skin glands secrete substances through ducts, so they are called:

Exocrine glands

110

Sweat glands are also called what?

Sudoriferous glands

111

What are mammary glands?

Specialized Sudoriferous glands that secrete milk during lactation

112

What are ceruminous glands?

Modified Sudoriferous glands that secretes cerumen

113

What is cerumen

Earwax

114

Cerumen contains what?

Lysozyme

115

What does Lysozyme do!?

It's an enzyme capable of destroying bacterial cells

116

Another name for oil glands is?

Sebaceous glands.

117

What is sebum?

An oily, waxy secretion on the surface of a hair follicle to keep the hair and skin supple

118

Dandruff is caused by the test that belongs to the genera of

Pityrosporum or malassezia