Axial skeleton vertebral and ribs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Axial skeleton vertebral and ribs Deck (86):
1

How many cervical vertebrae are there

7

2

How many thoracic vertebrae are there

12

3

How many Lumbar vertebrae are there

5

4

How many sacral vertebrae are there

5

5

How many coccygeal vertebrae are there

4

6

What are the spinal curves

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral

7

Body

thick, cylindrical, weight-bearing structure

8

Vertebral arch is composed of

pedicles and laminae

9

vertebral foramen

formed by the vertebral arch

10

vertebral canal

formed by the superior-to-inferior stacking of the vertebrae

11

Intervertebral foramina

allows horizontal passage for spinal nerves to travel to to other parts of the body

12

spinous process

projects posteriorly and inferiorly from the laminae of the vertebral arch

13

transverse processes

extend laterally from each side of the vertebral arch

14

superior articular processes

interlock with the inferior articular processes of the adjacent above vertebra

15

Inferior articular processes

interlock with the superior articular processes of the adjacent below vertebra

16

intervertebral discs

composed of an outer ring of anulus fibrosus and an inner ring core of nucleus pulposus

17

What is anulus fibrosus

fibrocartilage that forms the outer ring of the intervertebral discs

18

What is nucleus pulposus

gelatinous consistency that makes up the inner core of the intervertebral discs

19

how much of the height to the intervertebral discs make up of the vertebral column

1/4

20

What do the intervertebral discs do

act as shock absorbers and allow for flexibility between vertebrae, they also allow the vertebral column to bend

21

Where do the majority of herniated discs occur

between L4/L5 or L5/S1

22

What is bifid

split in two

23

Which vertebrae are bifid

The cervical except for C1

24

Which vertebrae have transverse foramina

the cervical

25

What do the transverse foramina do

provide a bony passageway for the vertebral arteries and veins that serve the brain

26

What is whiplash

when the stress is too great on the cervical vertebrae and it damages the muscles and ligaments and potentially injurys the spinal cord

27

Atlas

The first cervical vertebra. it articulates with the occipital condyles allowing for a yes nod.

28

What do the superior articular facets do on that atlas

they articulate with the occipital condyles of the skull

29

Atlanto-occipital joint

articulation of the atlas and occipital condyles

30

What does the atlas lack

a body and spinous process

31

Axis

The second cervical vertebrae

32

odontoid process

superior peg like projection on the axis. allows for a no motion

33

odontoid means

tooth

34

atlanto-axial joint

the articulation between the axis and atlas

35

Another name for odontoid process

dens

36

vertebra prominens

the 7th cervical vertebrae. has the largest spinous process which can be felt at the base of the neck

37

What do the thoracic vertebrae do that the other vertebrae dont

Serve as attachment points for ribs

38

Costal facets on the body

where the head of each rib attaches to the body of the vertebrae

39

costal facets on the transverse processes

Where the tubercle of each rib attaches to the transverse process

40

What don't T11 and T22 have

Costal facets on the transverse processes

41

What does lumbar mean

loin

42

What are the largest of the vertebrae

The lumbar

43

how are the lumbar vertebrae identified

heavy bodies and thick, blunt spinous processes

44

Spinal taps

used to collect spinal fluid typically performed by inserting a needle between L3 and L4

45

What does Sacrum mean

sacred bone

46

When does the sacrum fuse

Between the ages of 20-30

47

What does Auricular surface mean

shaped like an ear

48

Auricular surface

Articulation of the sacrum to the os coxae

49

sacroiliac joint

The articulation of the sacrum to the pelvic girdle

50

What does coccyx mean

like a cuckoo's beak

51

When does the coccyx fuse

about 25 years of age

52

What does the coccyx do

serve as an attachment site for several ligaments and some muscles

53

What forms the thoracic cage

Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages and sternum

54

What does the thoracic cage do

Protect vital organs, serve as an attachment site for muscles supporting the pectoral girdle, chest, neck, back, and muscles involved in respiration

55

Where does hematopoiesis occur in the thoracic cage

ribs, vertebrae, and sternum

56

What does sternum mean

chest

57

Another name for the sternum

breastbone

58

The bones of the sternum

manubrium, gladiolus, xiphoid

59

What does manubrium mean

handle

60

clavicular notch

articulates the sternum with the left and right clavical

61

jugular notch

shallow indentation between the clavicular notches

62

suprasternal notch

jugular notch

63

costal notches

articulate the costal cartilage with the sternum

64

What does gladiolus mean

body

65

How many costal notches does the gladiolus have on each side

6. for ribs 2-7

66

Sternal angle

horizontal ridge where the second pair of ribs articulate

67

What does xiphoid mean

sword-shaped

68

xiphoid

small cartilaginous projection that does not attach to the ribs but does serve as an attachment site for abdominal muscles

69

When does the xiphoid ossify

after age 40

70

true ribs

ribs 1-7. they connect individually to the sternum by separate cartilaginous extensions

71

Costal cartilages

cartilaginous extensions that articulate with the ribs and sternum

72

false ribs

ribs 8-12. do not attach directly to the sternum.

73

floating ribs

ribs 11 and 12. do not connect with the sternum at all

74

head of the rib

articulates with the costal facet of the vertebrae

75

tubercle

articulates with the costal facet on the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae

76

What do ribs 11 and 12 lack

tubercles

77

neck of the rib

between the head and tubercle of the rib

78

angle of rib

Where the shaft of the rib begins curving anteriorly towards the sternum

79

shaft of rib

tubular part of rib after the angle

80

flail chest

when three or more ribs are fractured in two places

81

paradoxical motion

different than what is expected

82

spina bifida

failure of the laminae of the vertebrae to fuse, exposing the meninges, spinal cord, or both

83

My aching back!

lower back pain

84

causes of lumbar paing

strained muscles, herniation of cartilage disc, dislocation of articular facets between two vertebrae

85

Where is the most common place for herniation of cartilage discs

between L4/L5 and L5/S1

86

treatment for lower back pain

bed rest, spinal manipulation, back and abdominal exercises, surgery