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Flashcards in Spinal cord 4th exam Deck (75):
1

Cervical part

Superior-most region of the spinal cord and is continuous with the medulla oblongata

2

What does the cervical part contain

motor neurons whose axons contribute to the cervical spinal nerves

3

Thoracic part

Lies inferior to the cervical region

4

What does the thoracic part contain

motor neurons for the thoracic spinal nerves

5

Lumbar part

shorter segment of the spinal cord that contains the motor neurons for the lumbar spinal nerves

6

Sacral part

Lies inferior to the lumbar region and contains the motor neurons for the sacral spinal nerves

7

Coccygeal part

most inferior tip of the spinal cord and one pair of spinal nerves arises from this region

8

conus medullaris

the tapering inferior end of the spinal cord

9

Where does the conus medullaris mark the official end of the spinal cord

first lumbar vertebra

10

Cauda equina

inferior to the conus medullaris, a group of axons

11

Filum terminale

within the cauda equina, a thin strand of pia mater that helps anchor the conus medullaris to the coccyx.

12

Where is the spinal cord thickest

around the upper and lower limbs

13

Cervical enlargement

located in the inferior cervical region of the spinal cord, contains the neurons that innervate the upper limbs

14

lumbosacral enlargement

extends through the mid-lumbar region of the spinal cord and innervates the lower limbs

15

How many pairs of spinal nerves is the spinal cord associated with

31

16

how many cervical nerves are there

8

17

how many thoracic nerves are there

12

18

how many lumbar nerves are there

5

19

how many sacral nerves are there

5

20

how many coccygeal nerves are there

1

21

Structures and spaces that encircle the spinal cord, from outermost to innermost

vertebra, epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater

22

where does the epidural space lie and what does it house

between the dura mater and the inner walls of the vertebra, and houses loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose connective tissue

23

Arachnoid

Deep to the dura mater and subdural space

24

lumbar puncture

clinical procedure for obtaining CSF

25

Where does the needle need to enter for a lumbar puncture.

subarachnoid space

26

Where is a lumbar puncture done

between L3 and L4 or L4 and L5

27

Pia mater

deep to the subarachnoid space, is a delicate, innermost meningeal layer composed of elastic and collagen fibers

28

Where is the white matter of the spinal cord and what does it do

peripheral, provides a means of neural communication to and from the brain

29

Where is the gray matter of the spinal cord and what does it do

central, serves as a center for spinal reflexes

30

What is the white matter of the spinal cord composed of

myelinated axons

31

What is the gray matter of the spinal cord composed of

dendrites, cell bodies of neurons, glial cells, and unmyelinated axons

32

central canal

at the center of the butterfly-shaped gray matter that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid

33

What do the spinal nerves connect to

they connect the central nervous system to muscles, glands, and receptors

34

What kind of nerves are spinal nerves

mixed nerves

35

Dermatome

a specific segment of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve

36

Shingles

reactivation of one's childhood chickenpox infection

37

referred visceral pain

a phenomenon in which pain or discomfort from one organ is mistakenly referred to a dermatome

38

Where is pain associated with a myocardial infarction

the skin dermatomes innervated by T1-T5 spinal nerves, which lie along the left pectoral region and the medial side of the left arm

39

Where is pain associated with kidney disease

along the T10-T12 dermatomes, which typically overlie the inferior abdominal wall in the groin and loin regions

40

Brain freeze

caused by the rapid warming of the hard palate after consumption of very cold substance

41

Myotome

muscle served by a single nerve root. the motor equivalent of a dermatome

42

nerve plexus

a network of interweaving spinal nerves

43

Which nerves dont form nerve plexus

T2-T12 and S5-Co1

44

cervical plexuses

located deep on each side of the neck, immediately lateral to cervical vertebrae C1-C4

45

What do the cervical plexuses innervate

anterior neck muscles as well as the skin of the neck and portions of the head and shoulders

46

Phrenic nerve

important branch of the cervical plexus. formed primarily from C4 nerve and some contributing axons from C3 and C5

47

What does the phrenic nerve innovate

The diaphragm

48

What causes hiccups (singultus)

irritation to the phrenic nerve causing spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm

49

Brachial plexus

networks of nerves that supply the upper limb

50

What forms the brachial plexus

spinal nerves from C5-T1

51

What does the brachial plexus innervate

pectoral girdle and the entire upper limb of one side

52

What are the five major named nerves that arise from the brachial plexus

Axillary nerve, median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, radial nerve, ulnar nerve

53

What does the axillary nerve innervate

both the deltoid and teres minor muscles. it receives sensory information from the superolateral part of the arm and skin

54

What does the median nerve innervate

most of the anterior forearm muscles and several muscles in the palm. it receives sensory information from the palmar side of fingers 1,2,3 and the lateral one-half of finger 4

55

musculocutaneous nerve

innervates the biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, and another anterior arm muscle. It also receives sensory input form the lateral surface of the forearm

56

radial nerve

innervates the triceps brachii and other muscles of the posterior of the forearm. It receives sensory information from the posterior arm and forearm surface and the dorsolateral side of the hand

57

Ulnar nerve

innervates some of the anterior forearm muscles and many of the muscles in the palm. It receives sensations from the skin of the dorsal and palmar aspects of fingers 5, and the medial half of finger 4.

58

Lumbar plexuses

formed by spinal nerves L1-L4 located lateral to the L1-L4 vertebrae and along the psoas major in the posterior abdominal wall

59

femoral nerve

arises from lumbar plexus. innervates the quadriceps femoris, the sartorius, and iliopsoas. it also receives sensory information from the anterior and inferomedial thigh as well as the medial aspect of the leg

60

lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

a branch of the femoral nerve that passs between the upper front of the ilium and the inguinal ligament near the anterior superior iliac spine.

61

meralgia paresthetica

When the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is compressed causing pain, tingling, a burning sensation, or numbness in the outer side of the thigh.

62

obturator nerve

arises from lumbar plexus. innervates gracilis and several other thigh muscles. it receives sensory information from the superomedial skin of the thigh.

63

Sacral plexuses

formed from spinal nerves L4-S5 and are located immediately inferior to the lumbar plexuses

64

Sciatic nerve

arises from sacral plexus. largest nerve in the body and is actually composed of two nerves wrapped in a connective tissue sheath.

65

Tibial nerve

part of sciatic nerve. innervates the hamstrings, gastrocnemius, soleus, and several other muscles fo teh leg and foot. It receives sensory impulses from skin covering the sole of the foot

66

Common fibular nerve

part of the sciatic nerve. innervate peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, and several other muscles of the leg and foot. receives sensory input from the anterolateral part of the leg, the toes, and the dorsal surface of the foot.

67

Neural tube

Where the central nervous system forms primarily from

68

Neural Crest cells

where the cranial and spinal nerves primarily form from

69

Neural canal

develops into the central canal of the spinal cord

70

Where does a newborn's spinal cord extend to

about the level of L3

71

Where does a child's spinal cord extend to

the level of L2

72

Where does an adult's spinal cord typically terminate

the level of L1

73

What typically happens when trauma occurs above C3

Death by asphyxiation

74

What happens when trauma is experienced between C3 and C7

A person will become a quadriplegic

75

When trauma happens between T1 and L1 what happens

A person may become a paraplegic