Axial muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Axial muscles Deck (38):
1

Epicranius

occipitofrontalis muscle and galea aponeurotica

2

Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis

Origin: frontal bone and skin of eyebrows
insertions: epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
action: moves the scalp, wrinkles forehead, and elevates the eyebrows

3

Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis

Origin: superior nuchal line
insertion: epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
action: moves the scalp slightly posteriorly

4

Orbicularis oris

First sphincter of alimentary canal
Origin: mandible and maxilla as well as fascia and fibers of other muscles
Insertion: skin of cheek and mandible
Action: pulls lower lip inferiorly, tenses skin of neck, and contributes to depression of the mandible

5

Buccinator

Origin: alveolar processes of mandible and maxillae
Insertion: orbicularis oris
Action: compresses cheek, holds food between teeth during chewing, aids in sucking and blowing

6

Facial nerve paralysis

Unilateral paralysis of the muscles of facial expression

7

Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis

When the cause of facial nerve paralysis is unknown. Bell palsy

8

Strabismus

when eyes are improperly aligned (lazy eye)

9

Strabismic ambylopia

when a lazy eye loses visual acuity

10

Causes of strabismus

Birth injuries, diseases localized to the eye or its bony orbit, improper attachment of extrinsic eye muscles, and heredity

11

Temporalis

Origin: superior and inferior portions of temporal bone
Insertion: coronoid process of mandible
Action: elevates and retracts mandible

12

Masseter

Origin: zygomatic arch
Insertion: lateral surface of coronoid process; lateral surface and angle of mandible
Action: elevates and retracts mandible; prime mover of jaw closure

13

Medial and lateral pterygoid

Origin: pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone
Insertion: mandible
Action: elevate and protract the mandible and move it from side to side during chewing

14

Tetanus

spastic paralysis caused by Clostridium tetani

15

botulism

Potentially fatal muscular paralysis caused by Clostridium botulinum

16

Sternocleidomastoid muscles

Andys favorite muscle
Origin: munibrium and sternal ends of clavicles
Insertion: mastoid processes of temporal bones
Action: When both contract, the head is pulled forward and down. when one contracts, it turns the head sideways in a direction opposite the side on which the contracting muscles is located

17

Congenital muscular torticollis

Commonly known as wryneck. Newborn presents w/ a shortened and tightened sternocleidomastoid muscle. Often is accompanied by plagiocephaly

18

Splenius capitus

origin: ligamentum nuchae
Insertion: Occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone
Action: When both contract it pulls the head back and extends and hyperextends the cervical vertebrae. When once contracts it turns the head sideways in a direction towards the same side on which the contracting muscle is located

19

Semispinalis capitus

Origin: Seventh cervical vertebrae and first six thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: between the superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occipital bones
Action: When both contract it pulls the head back and extends and hyperextends the cervical vertebrae. When once contracts it turns the head sideways in a direction towards the same side on which the contracting muscle is located

20

Erector spinae

maintain posture and to help us stand erect and are found along the entire vertebral column

21

Transversospinalis muscles

deep to the erector spinae muscles. connect and stabilize the vertebrae

22

External intercostals

used for restful breathing and extend inferomedially from the superior ribb to the adjacent inferior rib.
Origin: inferior border of superior rib
Insertions: superior border of inferior rib
Action: elevates the ribs by causing them to move up and out

23

Internal intercostals

Used for forceful exhalation
Origin: superior border of inferior rib
Insertion: inferior border of superior rib
Action: depresses the ribs during forced exhalation

24

Diaphragm

Origin: inferior internal surface of lower ribs, xiphoid process of sternum, costal cartilages of inferior ribs, and lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Central tendon
Action: contraction during inhalation causes flattening of the diaphragm, thereby expanding the thoracic cavity and compressing the abdominopelvic cavity.

25

Rectus sheath

an aponeurosis formed by external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis.

26

Linea semilunaris

a cutaneous depression formed just lateral to the rectus abdominis.

27

What forms the "six-pack" look

three fibrous tendinous intersections

28

Linea alba

partitions the rectus abdominis into left and right halves

29

External oblique

origin: external inferior borders of lower ribs
Insertion: linea alba by a broad aponeurosis; some to the iliac crest
Action: When both contract, they compress the abdomen and flex the vertebral column. when only one contracts it causes lateral flexion of the vertebral column

30

Internal oblique

Origin: lumbar fascia, inguinal ligament, and iliac crest
Insertion: linea alba, pubic crest, costal cartilages and surfaces of lower ribs
Action: When both contract, they compress the abdomen and flex the vertebral column. when only one contracts it causes lateral flexion of the vertebral column

31

Transversus abdmoninis

Origin: iliac crest, lumbar fascia, inguinal ligament, and cartilages of lower ribs
Insertion: linea alba and pubic crest
Action: primarily compresses abdomen

32

Rectus abdominis

Origin: superior surface of pubis near symphysis
Insertion: xiphoid process of sternum and inferior surfaces of middle ribs
Action: flexes vertebral column and compresses the abdominal wall; used in forceful exhalation

33

Pelvic diaphragm

extends from the ischium and pubis of the ossa coxae across the pelvic outlet to the sacrum and coccyx.

34

Four significant bony landmarks of the perineum

pubic symphysis anteriorly, coccyx posteriorly, both ischial tuberosities laterally

35

urogenital triangle

anterior portion of perineum which contains the external genitalia and urethra

36

anal triangle

posterior portion of perineum that contains the anus

37

levator ani

largest and most important group of the pelvic diaphragm. supports the pelvic viscera and functions as a sphincter at the anorectal junction, urethra, and vagina

38

Pubococcygeus

one of the levator ani muscles. made famous by Dr. Arnold Kegel.