Axial skeleton (skull) exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Axial skeleton (skull) exam 2 Deck (91):
1

What does sphenoid mean

Wedge shaped

2

Another name for sphenoid bone is

Bridging bone

3

Why is the sphenoid the most commonly fractured bone in the skull

Its hollow and has numerous foramina

4

Another name for the sella turcica

Turkish sadle

5

What is housed in the sella turcica

inferior portion of the pituitary gland

6

Head into the dashboard syndrom

When sudden traumatic shifting causes the pituitary stalk to be severed

7

Optic Foramen

allows passage of the optic nerve

8

Roman numeral II (nerve)

Optic nerve

9

Another name for optic foramen

optic canal

10

Foramen rotundum

allows passage of the second branch of the trigeminal nerve

11

Cranial nerve V

Trigeminal nerve

12

Where does the second branch of the trigeminal nerve convey sensation from

Teeth and gums of the maxilae

13

Second division nerve block

injection of anesthetic not far from below the foramen rotundum. desensitizes all of the upper teeth on one side of the maxilla

14

Foramen Ovale

Allows passage of the third branch of the trigeminal nerve

15

Where does the third branch of the trigeminal nerve convey sensation from

teeth and gums of the mandible

16

third division nerve block

Anesthetic injection fiben on the inner surface of the mandible to deaden feeling in the teeth and gums of the mandible

17

Foramen spinosum

Small opening for meningeal blood vessels

18

Superior orbital fissure

Allows passage of several cranial nerves

19

Foramen lacerum

Closed off in a living person. In between petrous region of temporal bone and sphenoid bone.

20

What does Ethmoid mean

like a sieve

21

Crista galli

(cock's comb) superior part of the ethmoid bone exhibiting a midsagittal elevation

22

Falx cerebri

(sickle-shaped) part of the meninges that partially separates the brain into left and right portions

23

Cribriform plate

(sieve like) numerous foramina that allow passage for fibers of the olfactory nerves to travel from the nose to the brain

24

Cranial nerve I

Olfactory nerves

25

cribriform plate is prone to fracture which can lead to

leakage of spinal fluid and allow bacteria from the nose access to the meninges resulting in meningitis

26

Meningitis

Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain

27

Perpendicular plate

inferior midline projection of ethmoid bone forming the superior part of the nasal septum.

28

Superior nasal conchae

projection of the ethmoid from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Also known as turbinates

29

Middle nasal conchae

Projection of the ethmoid from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Also known as turbinates

30

Inferior nasal conchae

not part of the ethmoid bone. independent facial bones

31

Zygomatic bones

Form the bony prominence of the cheeks and contribute to the lateral margin of the orbits

32

Zygomatic arch

Formed by the articulation of the temporal process of each zygomatic bone with the zygomatic process of each temporal bone

33

Lacrimal bones

form part of the medial wall of each orbit

34

lacrimal means

tear

35

Lacrimal groove

provides a passageway for the nasolacrimal duct, which drains tears into the nasal cavity

36

Where does the tear duct open into the nasal cavity

just inferior to the inferior nasal conchae

37

Nasal bones

form the bridge of the nose up which a pair of eyeglasses would rest

38

What do nasal bones do

support the lateral cartilage, which are the framework of the nose

39

Vomer

contributes to the inferior, posterior portion of the nasal septum

40

What does vomer mean

plowshare

41

Complete nasal septum consists of

perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, vomer bone, small amount of anterior cartilage (septal cartilage)

42

What is kind of cartilage is septal cartilage

Hyaline cartilage

43

What are the conchae (turbinates) covered with

highly vascular moist mucous membranes

44

palatine bones

small bones with a distinct L shape. for the posterior third of the hard palate, contribute to the posterior walls and floor of the nasal cavity, and make a small contribution to the floor of the orbits

45

Maxillae

Unite the midline to form the upper jaw

46

What does maxillae mean

Jawbone

47

Alveoli

small sockets for teeth

48

Alveolar processes

bone that supports the alveoli

49

Infraorbital foramen

provides passage of a blood vessel and a nerve

50

Palatine processes

horizontal projections that form the greater portion of the hard palate

51

cleft palate

When the palatine processes fail to join during early prenatal development (10-12 weeks)

52

Maxillary sinus

lateral to the nasal cavity, drains into the nasal cavity through an opening that is high and medial

53

Crepitus

a cracking sound caused by the escape of air under the skin. happens often when the maxillary sinus is fractured

54

Blowout fracture

When the eye or muscles that move the eye drop down into the maxillary sinus

55

mandible

entire lower jaw

56

Body of the mandible

Horse shoe shaped front and horizontal sides of the mandible

57

Rami of the mandible

extend vertically from the posterior portion of the body

58

What does Rami mean

branches

59

mandibular condyle

Articulates with the mandibular fossa on the inferior squamous portion of the temporal bone

60

temporomandibular joint

articulation of mandibular condyle with the mandibular fosa

61

Coronoid of mandible

attachment site for muscles that close the jaw

62

mandibular notch

U-shaped depression between the mandibular condyle and the coronoid

63

angle of the mandible

curved part that connects the body to the rami

64

mental foramen

penetrate the body on each side of the chin and allow passage of nerves and blood vessels

65

mandibular foramen

penetrate the medial side of each ramus.

66

What nerve goes through the mandibular foramen

the third branch of the trigeminal nerve

67

nasal complex

composed of bones and cartilage that enclose the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses

68

roof of the nasal complex is composed of

nasal bones, cribriform plates of ethmoid bone, parts of the frontal and sphenoid bones

69

floor of the nasal complex is composed of

palatine processes of maxillae and horizontal plates of the palatine bones

70

Lateral walls of the nasal complex are composed of

ethmoid, maxillae, inferior nasal conchae, palatine, and lacrimal bones

71

anterior portion of the nasal septum is

septal nasal cartilage

72

superior portion of the nasal septum is

perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

73

inferior portion of the nasal septum is

vomer bone

74

What are the paranasal sinuses

Ethmoidal, frontal, sphenoidal, and maxillary

75

paranasal sinuses are lined with

mucus and cilia

76

What do the sinuses do

humidify and warm inhaled air, give resonance to the voice, and help lighten the skull

77

bones the contribute to the orbit are

frontal, sphenoid, maxilla, zygomatic, palatine, lacrimal, ethmoid

78

What are the auditory ossicles

malleus, incus, stapes

79

hyoid bone

slender, U-shaped bone located inferior to the skull between the mandible and the larynx. does not attach to any other bone but is suspended by ligaments

80

fontanelles

large membranous areas of the skull that provide spaces between the developing bones

81

another name for fontanelles

soft spots

82

What does fontanelle mean

little spring

83

molding

the shifting of cranial bones during parturition

84

parurition

child birth

85

when do fontanels usually ossify

by 15-24 months

86

what does sunken fontanels mean

dehydration

87

What does bulging fontanels mean

meningitis and increased intracranial pressure

88

When does the coronal suture fuse

usually in late 20's to early 30's

89

When does the sagittal suture fuse

usually in the 40's

90

When does the lambdoidal suture fuse

usually in the 40's

91

when does the squamosal suture fuse

late 60's or not at all