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Flashcards in digestive system 1 Deck (59):
1

digestive system includes organs that

ingest food, transport food, digest the food into small usable components, absorb the necessary nutrients into the blood stream, expel the waste products from the body

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GI tract includes

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

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accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

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ingestion

introduction of solid and liquid nutrients into the oral cavity

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digestion

breakdown of large food items into smaller structures and molecules

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mechanical digestion

physically breaks down ingested materials into smaller pieces

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mastication

chewing

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chemical digestion

breaks down ingested molecules into smaller molecules by using enzymes

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propulsion

materials moving through the GI tract

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peristalsis

muscular contraction that forms ripples along part of the GI tract

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segmentation

churning and mixing movements in the small intestine which help dispense the material being ingested and combine it with intestinal secretions

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secretion

process of producing and releasing fluid products, such as acid, bile, digestive enzymes, and mucin

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absorption

involves either passive movement or active transport of electrolytes, digestion products, vitamins, and water across the GI tract

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elimation

pooping

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oral cavity

mouth

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gingivae

gums

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labial frenulum

a thin mucosal fold in the midline that holds the lips to the ginivae

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lingual frenulum

thin vertical mucous membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity

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how much saliva is produced dailty

1 to 1.5 liters

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salivary amylase

begins chemical digestion by breaking down starch

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lysozyme

antibodies in saliva that helps inhibit bacterial growth in the oral cavity

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parotid salivary glands

largest salivary gland. located anterior and inferior to the ear, partially overlying the masseter muscle

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parotid duct

carries the saliva to the oral cavity, travels parallel to the zygomatic arch and opens into the vestibule of the oral cavity near the second upper molar

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submandibular salivary glands

inferior to the body of the mandible and they prodcue most of the saliva for the mouth

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submandibular duct

opens from each gland in the floor of the mouth on the lateral sides of the lingual frenulum

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sublingual salivary glands

inferior to the tongue and internal to the oral caivty mucosa

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what primarily innervates the salivary glands

parasympathetic division of teh autonomic nervous system

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What innervates the submandibular and sublingual glands

CN VII

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What innervates the parotid glands

CN IX

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teeth are collectively known as

dentition

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crown

exposed part of tooth

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neck

constricted part

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roots

are anchored into the jaw

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dental alveoli

sockets within alveolar process of both the maxillae and the mandible

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deciduous teeth

20 of them. are the baby teeth

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permanent teeth

32 of them.

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incisors

front four teeth

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canines

vampire teeth

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premolars

bicuspids

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molars

thickest and most posteriorly placed teeth

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molars

thickest and most posteriorly placed teeth

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skeletal muscle pairs that form the wall of the pharynx

superior pharyngeal constrictors, middle pharyngeal constrictors, inferior pharyngeal constrictors

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intraperitoneal organs

stomach, jejunum and ileum, cecum, appendix, transverse and sigmoid colon

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retroperitoneal organs

kidneys, pancreas, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, bladder

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mesenteries

double-layered folds of peritoneum that support and stabilize the intraperitoneal GI tract organs

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greater omentum

extends inferiorly like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and covers most of the abdominal organs

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lesser omentum

connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal end of the duodenum to the liver

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mesentery proper

fan-shaped fold of peritoneum that suspends most of the small intestine from the internal surface of the posterior abdominal wall

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mesocolon

fold in the peritoneum that attaches parts of the large intestine to the internal surface of the posterior abdominal wall

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peritoneal ligament

a type of mesentery that attaches one organ to another organ, or attaches an organ to the anterior or lateral abdominal wall

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mucosa

deepest tunic of the GI tract. has absorptive and secretory function and contains: superficial epithelium, connective tissue, thin layer of smooth muscle

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submucosa

dense irregular connective tissue and which contains: accumulations of lymphatic tissue, mucin-secreting glands, many large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, nerve plexuses

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muscularis

contains two layers of muscle: an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer.

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adventitia

composed of loose connective tissue with dispersed collagen and connective tissue with dispersed collagen and elastic fibers

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serosa

same components as adventitia, but is covered by visceral peritoneum

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what organs are covered by serosa

intraperitoneal organs

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what organs are covered by serosa

intraperitoneal organs

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what promotes digestive system activity

parasympathetic innervation

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what inhibits digestive system activity

sympathetic innervation