Muscle Tissue and Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscle Tissue and Organization Deck (54):
1

excitability

it responds to electrical stimuli

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contractability

contracts to move bones or propel materials inside the body

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elasticity

the muscle cell will recoil to its resting length when the applied tension is removed

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extensibility

muscle cell is capable of extending in length in response to the contraction of opposing muscle cells

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hypertrophy

an increase in muscle fiber size, often following regular excercise

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sphincters

circular muscle bands at openings of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts

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Orifices

openings of the gastrointestinal urinary tracts

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Tendon

connective tissue layers merging to form a cordlike structure that attaches muscle to bone

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aponeurosis

thin, flattened sheet of tendon.

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Origin

less movable attachment site of muscle

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insertion

more moveable attachment site of muscle

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tendonitis

inflammation of either a tendon or a synovial sheath around a tendon

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What controls skeletal muscles

the somatic nervous system

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Motor neurons

efferent neurons. travel from the CNS to the muscle fibers

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sensory neurons

Afferent neurons. Travel to the CNS reporting activity of the muscles

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fascicles

bundle of muscle fibers

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circular muscles

fibers concentrically arranged around an opening or recess

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Another name for circular muscle

sphincter

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Parallel muscles

fascicles run parallel to its long axis

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Convergent muscles

widespread muscle fibers that converge on a common attachment site

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pennate muscles

tendons and muscle fibers resemble a large feather.

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unipennate muscle

all the muscle fibers are on the same side of the tendon

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Bipennate muscle

muscle fibers are on both sides of the tendon

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Multipennate muscle

the tendon branches within the muscle

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biomechanics

the practice of applying mechanical principles to biology

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lever

an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point

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Fulcrum

fixed point

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effort arm

the part of the lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort

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resistance arm

part of the lever from the fulcrum to the point of resistance

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First class lever system

fulcrum is in the middle

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Second class lever system

resistance is in the middle

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third class lever system

effort is in the middle

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Agonist

prime mover, muscle that contracts to produce a particular movement

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antagonist

muscle whose actions oppose those of the agonist

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synergist

muscle that assists the prime mover in performing its action

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Lifter

Levator

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pectoralis

chest or pectus

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intercostal

inbetween ribs

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brachii

upper arm

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zygomaticus

zygomatic bone

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sternocleidomastoid

sternum, clavicle and mastoid process of skull

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rectus

straight

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transverse

across

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oblique

oblique

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deltoid

triangle

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trapezius

trapezoid

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longus

long

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brevis

short

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teres

both long and round

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maximus

large

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minimus

small

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biceps

two heads/tendons of origin

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triceps

three heads/tendons of origin

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quadriceps

four heads/tendons of origin