Heart 4th exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart 4th exam Deck (81):
1

cardiac output

the amount of blood pumped from one ventricle per minute

2

Cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

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arteries

carry blood away from the heart

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arterioles

smaller branches of arteries

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veins

carry blood toward the heart

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venules

small branches of veins

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great vessels

arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart

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Pulmonary circulation consists of

chambers of the right side (right atrium and right ventricle).
Pulmonary arteries
pumonary veins

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Pulmonary arteries

convey poorly oxygenated blood to the lungs to eliminate carbon dioxide and to replenish oxygen

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Pulmonary veins

convey blood containing relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide and high amounts of oxygen from the lungs to the left side of the heart for pumping to the systemic circulation

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systemic circulation consists of

the chambers of the left side (left atrium and left ventricle)
all other named blood vessels that carry blood to all the peripheral organs and tissues of the body and then back to the heart

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Aorta

the largest systemic artery in the body

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Capillaries

smallest vessels. gas exchange in tissues occurs in capillaries

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superior vena cava

superior blood vessel that drains blood into the right atrium

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Inferior vena cava

Inferior blood vessel that drains blood into the right atrium

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base

posteriosuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the left atrium

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apex

inferior, conical end of the heart, projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the left side of the body

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pericardium

a fibrous sac with serous lining that contains the heart

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fibrous pericardium

tough outer portion of dense connective tissue of the pericardium

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serous pericardium

thin, double-layered, inner portion made of serous membrane of the pericardium

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Parietal layer of serous membrane

lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium

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Visceral layer

this layer is fused to the outer surface of the heart. also called the epicardium

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pericardial cavity

thin potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium. Is filled with serous fluid

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inflammation of the pericardial cavity leads to what

cardiac tampnade

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What is cardiac tamponade characterized by

pulsus paradoxus, jugular vein distention, and falling blood pressure

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What are the three layers of the heart

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

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epicardium

outermost layer of the heart

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myocardium

middle layer of the heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue

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where do myocardial infarctions occur

in the myocardial layer of the heart

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endocardium

inner surface of the heart and external surfaces of the heart valves. Its continuous with the endothelium, the lining of the blood vessels

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atria

thin-walled chambers that are located superiorly

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Auricle

anterior part of each atrium. Is a wrinkled, ear-like, flap-like extension

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what do the atria recieve

blood returning to the heart through both circuits

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Where does the right atrium receives blood

from the systemic circuit

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Where does the left atrium receive blood

from the pulmonary circuit

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Ventricles

the inferior chambers

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what are the large arteries that exit the heart

pulmonary trunk and aorta

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Pulmonary trunk

carries blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary circuit

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aorta

conducts blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circuit

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what do valves do

allow blood to only travel in one direction and prevent back flow

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what are valves lined with

endothelium

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where is the fibrous skeleton of the heart located

between the atria and the ventricles, and is formed from dense irregular connective tissue

43

Where does the superior vena cava drain blood from

the head, neck, upper limbs, and the superior region of the trunk

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where does the inferior vena cava drain blood from

the lower limbs and trunk

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where does the coronary sinus drain blood from

the heart wall

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interatrial septum

a thin wall between the right and left atria

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fossa ovalis

an oval depression in the interatrial septum. occupies the former location of the foramen ovale

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right atrioventricular valve

separates the right atrium from the right ventricle

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another name for right atrioventricular valve

AV valve, tricuspid valve

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Where does the right ventricle receive blood from

the right atrium

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interventricular septum

thick wall between the right and left ventricles

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trabeculae carneae

characteristic large, smooth, irregular muscular ridges on the internal wall surface of each ventricle

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papillary muscles

three cone-shaped, muscular projections in the right ventricle which anchor thin strands of collagen fibers call chordae tendineae

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chordae tendineae

attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve and prevent the valve from everting and flipping into the atrium when the right ventricle is contracting

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pulmonary semilunar valve

at the superior end of the right ventricle which marks the end of the right ventricle and the entrance into the pulmonary trunk

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pulmonary arteries

left and right divides of the pulmonary trunk. carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs

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semilunar valves

located within the walls of both ventricles immediately before connection of the ventricle to the pulmonary trunk or aorta

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What does a semilunar valve composed of

three thin, half-moon-shaped, pocket-like semilunar cusps

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how many pulmonary veins are there

4

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left atrioventricular valve

separates the left atrium from the left ventricle

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another name for left atrioventricular valve

AV valve, bicuspid valve, mitral valve

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How much thicker is the left ventricle wall than the right

three times thicker

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Where are the trabeculae carneae more prominent

left ventricle

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How many papillary muscles project from the left ventricle's inner wall

2

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Where do the left and right coronary arteries travel

in the coronary sulcus

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what is the coronary sulcus

a deep groove between the atria and ventricles

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What are the only branches of the ascending aorta

left and right coronary arteries

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ischemia

characterized by inadequate supply of oxygen and blood to a part of the body

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silent myocardial ischemia

painless

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angia pectoris

agonizing

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cardiac veins

collect deoxygenated blood and wastes from the myocardial capillaries

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coronary sinus

a large vein that lies in the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular groove

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Where does the coronary sinus drain

right into the right atrium

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tachycardia

an abnormally increase heart rate, shortens diastole and reduces blood flow to the ventricular myocardium

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hypotension

abnormally low blood pressure, can also reduce the ability of blood to flow through the ventricular myocardium

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bradycardia

atypically slow heartbeat of less than 50 beats per minute

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athlete's bradycardia

beneficial adaptation resulting from a muscular heart, healthy circulatory system, and excellent lung capacity

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foramen ovale

a hole that passes from the right atrium to the left atrium in the embryonic heart

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Septum primum

a flap of tissue over the foramen ovale

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patent foramen ovale

when the fossa ovalis fails to close properly

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other names for patent foramen ovale

perforated fossa ovalis, atrial septal defect