Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

620: Clinical Human Anatomy > Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (29)
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1
Q

The autonomic nervous system is the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body activities that are generally not under _____ control

A

conscious

2
Q

Where do the cell bodies of the somatic nervous system reside?

A

in the CNS (brain or spinal cord)

3
Q

Axons of the somatic nervous system extend where and are called what?

A

They extend all the way to their skeletal muscles as spinal nerves

4
Q

The autonomic nervous system consist of how many motor neurons? What are they called?

A

Chains of 2 motor neurons

 - first is the preganglionic neuron located in the brain or spinal cord and synapses with the 2nd neuron
 - second is the postganglionic neuron located in the ganglia outside the CNS and synapse with the organ it serves
5
Q

Is the pre- or postganglionic neuron slower? Why?

A

Postganglionic neuron is slower because it is lightly or unmyelinated

6
Q

What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system?

A
  • Parasympathetic division

- Sympathetic division

7
Q

Although the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions innervate most of the same organs they cause _____ effects

A

antagonistic

8
Q

The parasympathetic division is known as what?

A

The “rest & digest” system

9
Q

The sympathetic division is known as what?

A

The “fight or flight” system

10
Q

The parasympathetic division is aka what and why?

A

The craniosacral system because all its preganglionic neurons are in the brain stem or sacral levels of the spinal cord

11
Q

The preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division include cranial nerves __, __, __, and __ as well as the lateral horn of gray matter from S_- S_

A

CN III,VII, IX and X

S2-S4

12
Q

What does the parasympathetic division innervate?

A

internal organs (not skin)

13
Q

What neurotransmitter is released in all pre- and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons?

A

Acetylcholine

14
Q

Describe CN III (oculomotor) and its role in the PNS

A

It constricts the pupils

15
Q

Describe CN VII (facial) and its role in the PNS

A

It decreases the production of tears, nasal mucus, and saliva

16
Q

Describe CN IX (glossopharyngeal) and its role in the PNS

A

It effects the parotid gland which is a major salivary gland

17
Q

Describe CN X (vagus) and its role in the PNS

A

It innervates the visceral organs of the thorax & abdomen:

 - stimulates digestive glands
 - increases motility of smooth muscle of GI tract
 - decreases heart rate
 - causes bronchial constriction
18
Q

The sacral outflow from the parasympathetic nervous system from what nerves?

A

pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4)

19
Q

The pelvic splanchnic nerves supply what 2 things?

A
  • the 2nd half of large intestine

- all the pelvic (genitourinary) organs

20
Q

The sympathetic division is aka what and why?

A

The thoracolumbar system because all of its neurons are located in the lateral horn of gray matter from T1-L2

21
Q

Unlike the parasympathetic division, neurons of the sympathetic division go where?

A

everywhere in the body

22
Q

7 things associated with the SNS

A
  • nervous sweat
  • BP rises during excitement
  • dry mouth
  • dilated pupils
  • increased HR
  • increased respiratory rate
  • liver release more glucose
23
Q

What neurotransmitter is released by most postganglionic sympathetic neurons?

A

Norepinephrine

24
Q

What neurotransmitter is released by most preganglionic sympathetic neurons?

A

acetylcholine

25
Q

Preganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous system exit the spinal cord where? Where do they enter after they exit the spinal cord?

A

They exit the spinal cord through the ventral root and enter a spinal nerve

26
Q

Preganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous system exit spinal nerves via what?

A

communicating ramus

27
Q

As soon as the preganglionic neurons enter the sympathetic trunk/chain what 3 things can they do?

A

1) Synapse on the postganglionic neuron in chain ganglion then return to spinal nerve and follow its branch to the skin
2) Ascend or descend within the sympathetic trunk, synapse with a postganglionic neuron within a chain ganglion, and then return to a spinal nerve at that level and follow branches to skin
3) Enter the sympathetic chain, pass through without synapsing with a postganglionic neuron, forming a splanchnic nerve that passes towards thoracic or abdominal organs

28
Q

Where do splanchnic nerves synapse?

A

In prevertebral ganglion in front of aorta

29
Q

Once synapsed, where do the postganglionic axons go?

A

They follow arteries to the organs