Four Anatomical Planes
1) Median Plane: vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body dividing it into right and left halves
2) Sagittal Plane: vertical planes passing through the body parallel to the median plane
3) Frontal (Coronal) Plane: vertical planes passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, dividing it into anterior and posterior halves
4) Transverse (Horizontal) Plane: horizontal planes passing through the body at right angles to the median and frontal planes, dividing the body into superior and inferior halves.
Movements in the sagittal plane occur around what axis?
Movements in the frontal plane occur around what axis?
Movements in the transverse plane occur around what axis?
Where do all planes meet?
At the COG
flexion at the ankle joint that occurs when walking uphill or lifting the front of the foot and toes off the ground
bending of the foot and toes toward the ground, as when you stand on your toes
rotation of the radius medially so that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly and its dorsum faces anteriorly
rotation of the radius laterally to uncross it from the ulna
unions or junctions between two or more bones or rigid parts of the skeleton
6 Types of Synovial Joints
5) Ball and Socket
Describe Plane Joints
Permit gliding or sliding movements in the plane of the articular surface
Example: AC joint
Describe Hinge Joints
Permit flexion and extension only, movements occur in one plane around a single axis
Example: Elbow joint
Describe Saddle Joints
Permit abduction and adduction as well as flexion and extension, movements occur in the sagittal and frontal planes around two axes at right angle to each other
Describe Condyloid Joints
Permit flexion and extension as well as abduction and adduction, movements occur in the sagittal plane
Describe Pivot Joints
Permit rotation around a central axis
Example: Atlas (C1) rotates around the axis (C2)
Two Types of Phasic (Active) Muscle Contractions
Isometric vs. Isotonic Muscle Contractions
Isometric Muscle Contractions: the muscle length remains the same but tension is increased
Isotonic Muscle Contraction: the muscle changes length in relationship to the production of movement
2 Types of Isotonic Muscle Contractions
Describe concentric muscle contraction
movement occurs as a result of the muscle shortening
i.e. deltoid shortens to raise arm in abduction
Describe eccentric muscle contraction
movement occurs as a result of the muscle lengthening
i.e. deltoid lengthens to lower arm in adduction