Avermectins Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Avermectins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Avermectins Deck (52):
1

Avermectins are antibiotics originally from ____ ____.

Streptomyces avermitilis

2

What are the 4 generic avermectins?

1. Ivermectin

2. Doramectin

3. Selamectin

4. Eprinomectin

3

What are the 2 generic milbemycins?

1. Milbemycin

2. Moxidectin

4

____ ____ is a diluent used in Ivermectin.

Propylene glycol

5

What are the 2 constituents of Ivermectin?

1. Macrolide

2. Sugar molecule

6

What are the 4 modes of action of Ivermectin?

1. Increases opening of Cl- ions

2. Allosteric modulator of ligand-gated ion channels

3. Inhibit movement, pharyngeal pumping, and egg laying in nematodes due to increased inhibitory ion-channels

4. Inhibit muscle contraction in insects because of GluCl channels present on body muscle

7

Which of the following is Ivermectin effective against: Nematode adults, nematode larvae, insects, flukes, lice, fleas, filaria, mites.

1. Nematode adults

2. Nematode larvae

3. Filaria

4. Insects

5. Lice

6. Mites

8

What is the spectrum of Ivermectin in the horse?

1. Bots

2. Stronglyes

3. Pinworms

4. Ascarids

5. Stomach worms

9

What is the spectrum of Ivermectin in the pig?

1. Major GI worms

2. Lungworms

3. Kidney worms

10

What is the spectrum of Ivermectin in the dog?

1. Microfilariae

2. Whipworms

3. Ascarids

11

Is Ivermectin lipophilic or lipophobic?

Lipophilic

12

The concentration of Ivermectin is highest in which 3 tissues?

1. Liver

2. Fat

3. Bile

13

The concentration of Ivermectin is lowest in which tissue?

Brain

14

____ ____ accounts for 98% of elimination of Ivermectin.

Fecal excretion (via bile)

15

In which animal can Ivermectin NOT be used?

Lactating diary cows

16

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal time of Ivermectin in swine?

5 days (PO

18 days (SQ)

17

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal time of Ivermectin in sheep?

11 days (PO)

18

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal time of Ivermectin in cattle?

35 days (SQ)

49 days (pour on)

19

True or False: Ivermectin is teratogenic.

FALSE - Ivermectin is safe in pregnant animals.

20

Eprinomectin is a treatment for bovine ___ and ___.

Nematodes and ectoparasites

21

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal period for Eprinomectin in cattle?

There is NO pre-slaughter w/d period

22

What is the milk discard time of Eprinomectin in cattle?

There is NO milk discard time

23

What is Dectomax?

Doramectin

24

Which is more lipophilic, Ivermectin or Doramectin?

Doramectin

25

Which has a longer plasma half-life, Ivermectin or Doramectin?

Doramectin

26

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal time for Doramectin (SQ/IM)?

35 days

27

What is the pre-slaughter withdrawal time for Doramectin (pour on)?

45 days

28

How is Selamectin applied in dogs and cats?

Topically 1x / month

29

What is the common name of Selamectin?

Revolution

30

What is Selamectin 1 effective against in the dog?

1. Heartworm preventative

2. Fleas

3. Ear mites

4. Ticks

5. Sarcoptic mites

31

What is Selamectin 1 effective against in the cat?

1. Heartworm preventative

2. Hookworms

3. Fleas

4. Ascarids

5. Fleas

32

Selamectin 2 is more bio-available in the dog or the cat?

Cat (74% vs. 4%)

33

What is the plasma half-life of Selamectin 2 in the dog?

11 days

34

What is the plasma half-life of Selamectin in the cat?

8 days

35

Which is safer, Selamectin 2 or Ivermectin?

Selamectin 2

36

Which is longer acting, Ivermectin or Moxidectin?

Moxidectin

37

Which is more lipid soluble, Ivermectin or Moxidectin?

Moxidectin

38

What is the pre-slaugter withdrawal time of Moxidectin in cattle?

NONE when administered topically

39

What is the milk withdrawal time of Moxidectin in cattle?

NONE when administered topically

40

What is the Moxidectin preparation in the dog called?

Proheart

41

What is the use of Proheart in the dog?

Oral and SQ against eartworm prevention

42

What is the Moxidectin preparation in the cat called?

Cydectin

43

What is the use of Cydectin in the cat?

Injectable and pour on against nematodes and ectoparasites

44

What is the Moxidectin preparation in the horse?

Quest

45

What is Milbemycin used to control?

1. Heartworm

2. Ascarids

3. Hookworms

4. Whipworms

46

___% of a Milbemycin dose is absorbed.

10%

47

Milbemycin can also be used in the control of demodex. What is the treatment plan?

1x / day at 2-3 mg/kg for 1-3 months

48

True or False: Milbemycin is not to be administered to nursing pups.

FALSE - Milbemycin is not harmful to nursing pups.

49

True or False: Milbemycin is not to be administered to pregnant bitches because of its harmfulness to fetuses.

FALSE - Milbemycin is not harmful to fetuses.

50

Review: what is the pre-slaughter withdrawal period of pour-on ivermectin & doramectin in cattle?

7 weeks

51

Review: what is the pre-slaughter withdrawal period of pour-on eprinomectin & moxidectin?

There is NO withdrawal period

52

Adverse effects associated with the Avermectins are due to ____ receptor stimulation when these antibiotics get into the brain.

GABA