Equine GI Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Equine GI Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine GI Pharmacology Deck (73):
1

A cationic polypeptide with bactericidal activity against gram (-) bacteria.

Polymyxin B

2

To which portion of the endotoxin does Polymyxin B bind?

Lipid A

3

What are 2 side effects associated with Polymyxin B?

1. Nephrotoxicity

2. Neurotoxicity

4

Is Polymyxin B bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

5

A synthetic xanthine derivative, phosphodiesterase inhibitor.

Pentoxifylline

6

True or False: Polymyxin B has decreased bio-availability after repeated dosing.

FALSE - PENTOXIFYLLINE has decreased availability after repeated dosing.

7

Pentoxifylline suppresses TNF-alpha, ____, and ____ production.

1. IL-1

2. IL-6

8

Dimethylsulfoxide is a what?

Radical scavenger

9

Dimethysulfoxide can cause hemolysis when?

1. Given too concentrated

2. Given too quickly

10

True or False: All anti-endotoxic drugs are more effective if given before exposure to an endotoxin.

TRUE

11

What type of GI drug is Bismuth subsalicylate?

Intestinal protectant (Pepto-bismol)

12

What type of GI drug is Kaolin pectin?

Intestinal protectant

13

What do Bismuth subsalicylate and Kaolin pectin have in common?

Absorb toxins, anti-diarrheal

14

Activated charcoal absorbs toxins and drugs, preventing/reducing systemic absorption. You may follow administration with a laxative when?

30 minutes after

15

Medications other than activated charcoal should not be given until how long after activated charcoal administration?

3 hours

16

____ and ____ decrease absorption of activated charcoal.

1. Dairy products

2. Mineral oil

17

What type of drug is Dimethylsulfoxide?

Anti-endotoxic drug

18

Di-tri-octahedral smectite is an intestinal absorbent that absorbs what 2 toxins in vitro?

1. C. difficile

2. C. perfringens

19

What are 4 indications for the use of laxatives or cathartics?

1. Relive simple impactions

2. Decrease intestinal transit time

3. Increase stool consistency with chronic diarrhea

4. Lubricate passage of ascarids or sand

20

What is magnesium sulfate (epsom salt)?

Laxative - Osmotically draws water into the GI lumen

21

What is Dioctyl sodium succinate?

Laxative

22

How does Dioctyl sodium succinate work?

Stimulates net secretion of water, Na, Cl, and K

23

What are 3 adverse effects of Dioctyl sodium succinate?

1. Abdominal discomfort

2. Intestinal irritation

3. Dehydration

24

When would you use Dioctyl sodium succinate?

Severe/refractory cases of impaction

25

What is mineral oil?

Mild laxative

26

How does mineral oil work?

Prevents the reabsorption of water

27

What would you use to prevent ascarid impactions in heavily infected foals at the time of deworming?

Mineral oil

28

What could develop if mineral oil is aspirated?

Severe granulomatous pneumonia

29

What is psyllium?

Bulk forming laxative

30

What is the main use of psyllium?

Treatment and prevention of sand impaction

31

Water can be utilized as a laxative. What is one side effect to the use of water?

Hyponatremia

32

Caution: do not leave an indwelling nasogastric tube in place for more than ___ days.

2 days

33

Leaving a nasogastric tube in place for more than 2 days may cause what?

Pharyngeal necrosis

34

What is aluminum/magnesium hydroxide?

Anti-ulcer medication

35

True or False: Aluminum/magnesium hydroxide can be used to treat gastric ulcers.

FALSE - aluminum/magnesium hydroxide is a preventative, but is NOT curative for gastric ulcers.

36

What is cimetidine?

Anti-ulcer medication

37

What is the MOA of cimetidine?

Antagonizes H2 receptors

38

What is ranitidine?

Anti-ulcer medication

39

What is the MOA of ranitidine?

Antagonizes H2 receptors

40

True or False: Ranitidine is effective in healing gastric ulcers.

TRUE

41

What is sucralfate?

Anti-ulcer medication (sulfated polysaccharide)

42

Sucralfate stimulates mucus secretion and increases what?

PGE synthesis

43

What is the MOA of omeprazole?

Irreversibly inhibits proton pumps (H/K ATPase pumps)

44

True or False: Omeprazole can be used both curatively and as a prevention of gastric ulcers.

TRUE

45

What is pantoprazole?

Anti-ulcer medication (second generation proton pump inhibitor)

46

What is misoprostol?

Anti-ulcer medication (prostaglandin E1 analog)

47

Misoprostol stimulates the production of ____ and ____.

1. Mucus

2. Bicarbonate

48

Misoprostol inhibits the secretion of what?

Gastric acid

49

What are 2 adverse effects of misoprostol?

1. Abdominal pain

2. Diarrhea

50

What are 4 indications for prokinetics?

1. Delayed gastric emptying

2. Post-operative ileus

3. Cecal impaction

4. Proximal enteritis

51

Lidocaine has prokinetic effects on the small intestine and ____.

Large colon

52

What 3 effects does lidocaine have?

1. Anti-inflammatory

2. Anti-arrhythmic

3. Analgesic

53

With what 2 drugs does lidocaine interact?

1. Cimetidine

2. Metronidazole

54

Lidocaine is beneficial in the treatment of proximal enteritis and what?

Post-operative ileus

55

What are 4 toxic effects of lidocaine?

1. Muscle fasciculations

2. Ataxia

3. Collapse

4. Seizures

56

What is erythromycin lactobionate?

Prokinetic (motilin receptor agonist)

57

Which parts of the bowel will erythromycin lactobionate work on?

1. Stomach

2. Ileum

3. Cecum

4. Pelvic flexure

58

What are 2 side effects of erythromycin lactobionate?

1. Abdominal pain

2. Diarrhea

59

What is the name of the chemical that makes up cisapride?

Benzamide

60

What is the MOA of cisapride?

Increases acetylcholine release at myenteric plexus, promoting generalized increase in motility

61

What type of prokinetic is bethanechol chloride?

Synthetic muscarinic cholinergic agonist

62

What would an overdose of betansechol chloride case?

1. Salivation

2. Lacrimation

3. Urination

4. Defecation

(SLUD)

63

What type of prokinetic is neostigmine methylsulfate?

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

64

What is butylscopolammonium bromide?

Antispasmodic

65

What is one side effect of butylscopolammonium bromide?

Tachycardia

66

What type of antispasmodic is butylscopolammonium bromide?

Anticholinergic

67

Metronidazole is used to treat ____ in neonatal foals.

Clostridium perfringens

68

Metronidazole is used to treat ____ in foals and adults.

Clostridium difficile

69

What are 2 indications for the use of macrolide antibiotics in the horse?

1. Proliferative enteropathy (Lawsonia intracellularis)

2. Pyogranulomatous enterocolitis (Rhodococcus equi)

70

Name 3 macrolide antibiotics.

1. Clarithromycin

2. Azithromycin

3. Erythromycin

71

What would you use for the treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis in animals that develop diarrhea on macrolides?

Chloramphenicol

72

What is indicated for the treatment of Potomac Horse Fever (Neorickettsia risticii)?

Oxytetracycline

73

What is the one adverse effect associated with oxytetracycline?

Nephrotoxicity