Macrolides Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Macrolides > Flashcards

Flashcards in Macrolides Deck (34):
1

What is the MOA for the tetracyclines?

30S inhibitors

2

Is the MOA of the tetracyclines reversible or irreversible? Bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Reversible --> Bacteriostatic

3

Which 4 organisms are sensitive to the Tetracyclines?

1. Brucella

2. Rickettsia

3. Spirochetes

4. Chlamydia

4

Which is energy-dependent, the uptake of Tetracyclines in gram (+) bacteria or gram (-) bacteria?

Gram (-)

5

In which environments is gram (-) uptake of Tetracyclines poor?

1. Anaerobic conditions

2. Low pH

6

____ is a neuroprotective agent that inhibits apoptosis in neurons.

Minocycline

7

____ is a good choice in the presence of a neuropathy because it is NOT eliminated via the kidneys.

Doxycycline

8

Tetracyclines are chelated by what?

1. Mg+2

2. Ca+2

9

Because Tetracyclines are chelated by Mg+2 and Ca+2, they are poorly absorbed in the presence of what?

Milk

10

Tetracyclines also cause what in the fetus, neonate, and juvenile?

Tetracyclines are deposited into bone and teeth and cause YELLOW DISCOLORATION

11

Which Tetracycline does NOT cause the yellow bone/teeth discoloration?

Minocycline

12

List the 5 other toxicities associated with the Tetracyclines.

1. Nephrotoxicity

2. GI effects

3. Esophageal stricture

4. Injection site irritant

5. Photosensitivity

13

Which Tetracyclines are NOT associated with nephrotoxicity?

1. Doxycycline

2. Minocycline

14

Which Tetracycline causes esophageal stricture in the cat?

Doxycycline

15

What are Tetracyclines use vs. in foals?

Contracted tendons

16

Which Tetracycline is commonly use vs. BRD (bovine respiratory disease)?

Hexasol

(Oxytetracycline + Flunixin)

17

What is the MOA of the macrolides?

Bind to the 50S ribosome to interrupt tRNA binding and peptide chain elongation.

18

Is the MOA of macrolides reversible or irreversible? Bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Reversible --> Bacteriostatic

19

What is the spectrum of the Macrolides?

1. ALL gram +

2. Gram (-) anaerobes

20

Most Macrolides are NOT effective against which bacterial group?

Enterobacteriaceae

21

Which Tetracycline is the BEST versus Mycoplasma?

Tulathromycin

22

Which of the following is effective and which is ineffective against Mycoplasma: Erythromycin, Tylosin?

Erythromycin is NOT effective

Tylosin is usually effective

23

How do Macrolides primarily gain resistance?

Methylation of the ribosome

24

The methylation associated with Macrolide resistance confers cross-resistance with which two antimicrobial classes?

1. Lincosamides

2. Streptogramins

25

Which 2 Macrolides cause sterile abscesses?

1. Tylosin

2. Erythromycin

26

Which Tetracycline is cardiotoxic in the human?

Tilmicosin

27

Which Macrolide prevents tear staining due to epiphora?

Tylosin

28

In which species should Tylosin NOT be used?

Equine

29

What are the top 3 uses of Tulathromycin?

Bovine and swine (1) respiratory disease, (2) foot rot, (3) pink eye.

30

What is the main indication for the use of Clarithromycin?

Vs. Rhodococcus in the horse (+ rifampin)

31

What is Tylosin used vs. in poultry?

Mycoplasma

32

What is Tylosin used vs. in dogs?

1. Epiphora

2. IBD

33

What is Tylosin used vs. in swine?

1. Mycoplasma

2. Brachyspira

34

What is the spectrum of the Macrolides?

1. Gram (+)

2. Gram (-) anaerobes