Ocular Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Ocular Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ocular Pharmacology Deck (89):
1

What is uveitis?

Inflammation of the uvea, iris, and ciliary body

2

Is the epithelium of the cornea hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophobic

3

Is the endothelium of the cornea hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophobic

4

Is the stroma of the cornea hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic

5

Would an oil-based medication more easily penetrate the corneal epithelium or stroma?

Epithelium

6

Would a water-based medication more easily penetrate the corneal endothelium or stroma?

Stroma

7

When suspicious of a corneal ulcer, you would use a fluorescing stain toe identify the ulcer. Which layer of the cornea does this stain adhere to?

Stroma

8

What are the 2 possible ways of drug absorption when topically administered?

1. Penetration of the cornea

2. Systemic absorption through the conjunctiva and the nasolacrimal system

9

Higher drug ____ or higher ____ of treatment can be used in order to increase the drug concentration in a treated tissue?

Higher drug CONCENTRATION or higher FREQUENCY of treatment can be used in order to increase the drug concentration in a treated tissue.

10

Wait at least ___ minutes between different eye drops.

5 minutes

11

Which MUST be shook well prior to application, an ophthalmic solution or suspension?

Suspension

12

Which is more stable, ophthalmic drops or ointment?

Ophthalmic ointment

13

Explain the penetration of subconjunctival injections.

Bypass the conjunctival and corneal barriers for direct scleral absorption

14

What are the indications for subconjunctival injection?

1. Bolus of medication for animals not permitting repeated topical application (Ex: wildlife, aggressive animal)

2. For water-soluble drugs that would penetrate the cornea poorly

3. For long-acting drugs

4. To confine a drug's effect to the eye

15

Again, what are the indications for subconjunctival injections?

1. For long-acting drugs

2. For water-soluble drugs (unable to penetrate the cornea)

3. To confine a drug's effect to the eye

4. For animals that will not permit repeated topical administration

16

True or False: Systemically administered drugs have no effect on the anterior or vitreous chambers of the eye.

FALSE - systemic drugs do have an effect on these chambers.

17

True or Falase: Most antibiotics penetrate the cornea well.

FALSE - most antibiotics have poor corneal penetration.

18

Name the 3 polypeptide ocular drugs.

1. Polymyxin B

2. Gramicidin

3. Bacitracin

19

Are the polypeptides bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Bactericidal

20

Describe the spectrum of the polypeptides.

Broad spectrum

21

True or False: The polypeptides can be administered topically, subconjunctivally, or systemically.

FALSE - the polypeptides are toxic when administered subconjunctivally or systemically. The polypeptides should only be used topically.

22

Name 3 aminoglycosides used in ocular pharmacology.

1. Gentamicin

2. Tobramycin

3. Amikacin

23

Describe the spectrum of the aminoglycosides.

Broad spectrum

24

Are the aminoglycosides bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

25

True or False: These aminoglycosides can be used systemically.

FALSE - aminoglycosides are toxic when used systemically.

26

Which of the following is the most effective aminoglycoside, tobramycin or gentamicin?

Tobramycin

27

Which of the following is least epitheliotoxic, tobramycin or gentamicin?

Tobramycin

28

What is the most commonly used quinolone in ocular pharmacology?

Ofloxacin

29

Describe the spectrum of the quinolones.

Broad spectrum (limited against anaerobes)

30

Which antibiotic is effective against resistant staphylococcus?

Cephalosporins: Cefazolin

31

The cephalosporin cefazolin is used mainly for what type of ocular infections?

Staph and strep infections

32

True or False: The cephalosporin cefazolin easily penetrates the cornea.

FALSE - cefazolin has LOW corneal permeability.

33

Which of the following are the tetracyclines, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoal, anti-protease.

1. Antibacterial

2. Anti-inflammatory

3. Anti-protease

34

Are the tetras bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Bacteriostatic

35

The tetras are effective against ____ and ____.

1. Mycoplasma

2. Chlamydophila (mainly in kittens)

36

What is the only ophthalmic preparation of tetracycline?

Ointment

37

Which fungal organism is miconazole effective against?

Aspergillus

38

True or False: Miconazole has poor penetration of the cornea.

TRUE

39

Which 2 fungal species is voriconazole effective against?

1. Fusarium

2. Aspergillus

40

True or False: Voriconazole has good penetration of the cornea.

TRUE

41

What type of antivirals are currently the main antivirals used in veterinary ophthalmology?

Nucleoside analogs

42

Nucleoside analogs are most frequently used to treat which virus?

Feline herpesvirus

43

Nucleoside analogs are virostatic or virocidal?

Virostatic

44

What is the administration protocol for Idoxuridine?

Every 2 hours for 2 days then 4-6 x/day for 3-4 weeks

45

Which of the following is not effective against feline herpesvirus: Nucleoside analogs, Cidofovir, Acyclovir.

Acyclovir

46

Which dose of Famciclovir has been reported to have a positive clinical effect?

90 mg/kg every 12 hours

47

How does L-lysine interfere with viral replication?

Ties up arginine so it is not available for viral replication

48

What can you use as a life-long food additive for chronic recurring feline herpesvirus infections?

L-lysine

49

What is the administration protocol of L-lysine in PREVENTION of feline herpesvirus?

250-500 mg/cat every 24 hours

50

What is the administration protocol of L-lysine in TREATMENT of feline herpesvirus?

250-500 mg/cat every 12 hours

51

Do NOT use topical steroids on an eye with what?

Ulcerative keratitis

52

Corticosteroids decrease the release of ____ from injured cell membranes.

Arachidonic acid

53

Corticosteroids block degranulation of what 3 cell types?

1. Neutrophils

2. Mast cells

3. Basal cells

54

Corticosteroids prevent release of histamine, ____, and ____.

1. Proteases

2. Bradykinin

55

Corticosteroids increase or decrease capillary permeability?

Decrease

56

Corticosteroids increase or decrease vasodilation?

Decrease

57

Corticosteroids increase or decrease neovascularization?

Decrease

58

What are the 3 general indications for corticosteroid use?

1. Allergies

2. Hypersensitivities

3. Immune-mediated diseases

59

How do corticosteroids affect fibroblast responses?

Inhibit fibroblast responses

60

How do corticosteroids affect epithelial regeneration?

Interfere with epithelial regeneration

61

How do corticosteroids affect collagen?

They potentiate proteinases that break down collagen

62

What affect do corticosteroids have on intraocular pressure?

Increase intraocular pressure

63

What affect do corticosteroids have on corneal epithelium and stroma?

Cause degeneration with long term use

64

True or False: Just like in the human being, corticosteroids cause cataracts in animals.

FALSE - corticosteroids do NOT cause cataracts in animals.

65

True of False: Corticosteroid can facilitate viral infections in prolonged use.

FALSE - corticosteroids can facilitate FUNGAL infections in prolonged use.

66

Corticosteroids should be avoiding with metabolic diseases, especially ____ in small animals.

Diabetes

67

Which of the following topical corticosteroids has the best corneal penetration: acetate, alcohol, or phosphate?

Acetate

68

What would you use for intraocular inflammation?

Prednisolone acetate

69

What would you use for extraocular inflammation?

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate

70

Which corticosteroid is systemically used in small animals?

Prednisone or prednisolone

71

Which corticosteroid is systemically used in horses?

Dexamethasone

72

Which is preferred in exotic animals, steroids or NSAIDs?

NSAIDs

73

How do NSAIDs work?

Prevent the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid

74

What are the primary mediators of ocular inflammation?

Prostaglandins

75

What NSAID can be used in horses to treat SCC?

Piroxicam

76

What are the 2 most common treatments for KCS to date?

1. Tacrolimus

2. Cyclosporin (Optimmune)

77

What affect do Tacrolimus and Cyclosporin have on tear production?

Stimulate tear production

78

What are serum, N-acetylcysteine, EDTA, and tetracyclines?

Anti-proteases

79

How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?

Block the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, decreasing aqueous humor production

80

For what condition would you use carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

Glaucoma

81

How do prostaglandin anaglogs decrease intraocular pressure?

By increasing uveoscleral outflow

82

What are Latanoprost and Travoprost?

Prostaglandin analogues

83

Which of the following is most cost effective, Latanoprost or Travoprost?

Latanoprost

84

How are beta-adrenergic blockers anti-glaucoma?

Decrease aqueous humor production

They do this by blocking beta receptors on the ciliary epithelium

85

What is the adverse effect of using a beta blocker?

Bradycardia

86

True or False: Beta blockers can be used alone in the treatment of glaucoma.

FALSE - Beta blockers are not adequate in treating glaucoma when used alone. They are preferably used in combination with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.

87

Osmotic diuresis can be used to lower intraocular pressure. What is the mechanism of this?

Shrinks the vitreous of the eye

88

What is an example of a drug that can cause osmotic diuresis and shrinkage of the vitreous by association?

Mannitol

89

In what patients would Mannitol be contraindicated?

Renal disease patients