Beta-lactams II Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Beta-lactams II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Beta-lactams II Deck (57):
1

The cephalosporins are all natural or synthetic derivatives of ____ derived from ____ ____.

The cephalosporins are all natural or synthetic derivatives of CEPHALOTHIN derived from CEPHALOSPORIUM ACREMONIUM.

2

What is the mechanism of action of cephalosporins?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis at the 3rd step in peptidoglycan synthesis

3

Are cephalosporins bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic?

Bacteriocidal

4

What is the mechanism of action for carbapenems?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis at the 3rd step in peptidoglycan synthesis

5

What is the mechanism of action for monobactams?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis at the 3rd step in peptidoglycan synthesis

6

What is the mechanism of action for bacitracin?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis at the 2nd step (pyrophosphate) instead of PBP

7

Cephalosporins are not usually sensitive to ____, ____, or ____.

Cephalosporins are not usually sensitive to CLAVULANOIC ACID, SULBACTAM, or TAZOBACTAM.

8

Which group has more resistance problems, penicilllins or cephalosporins?

Penicillins - penicillinases are more common than cephalosporins.

9

Hypersensitivity to penicillins does not always lead to cephalosporin hypersensitivity. What does this tell us about the beta-lactam epitopes for the IgE?

The epitope is not the beta-lactam but likely a side chain.

10

List the 1st generation cephalosporins (3).

1. Cephalexin
2. Cefadroxil
3. Cephapirin

11

How is cephalexin administered?

Orally

12

How is cefadroxil administered?

Orally

13

How is cephapirin administered?

Intramammary

14

List the 3rd generation cephalosporins (3).

1. Cefpodoxime
2. Ceftiofur
3. Cefovecin

15

How is cefpodoxime administered?

Orally

16

How is ceftiofur administered?

Parenterally, intrammaray

17

How is cefovecin administered?

Parenterally

18

How is cefepime used in humans?

IV to treat Pseudomonas

19

Which drug has cross-reactivity with cefepime?

Cefquinome

20

List the 4th generation cephalosporins (2).

1. Cefepime
2. Cefquinome

21

What is the 5th generation cephalosporin?

Ceftobiprole

22

What is the spectrum of 1st generation cephalosporins (cephalexin, cefadroxil, cephapirin)?

Gram (+)

23

What is the spectrum of 3rd generation cephalosporins (cefpodoxime, ceftiofur, cefovecin)?

Gram (+)

24

What is the spectrum of 4th generation cephalosporins (cefepime, cefquinome)?

Gram (-)

25

Which generation of cephalosporins is best at crossing the blood-brain-barrier?

3rd generation cephalosporins

26

True or False: Cephalosporins are well-absorbed orally.

True

27

The pKa of cephalosporins is 4-5, so they are ____ in the stomach.

Non-ionized

28

Cephalosporins are more OR less ionized in the plasma compared to penicillins?

LESS

29

Because cephalosporins are less ionized in the plasma than penicillins, do they have a higher or lower Vd?

Higher Vd

30

Are cephalosporins concentration-dependent, time-dependent, or AUC-dependent?

Time-dependent

31

Sustained-release formulations are available fro which cephalosporins?

1. Cefovecin
2. Ceftiofur

32

There is also a ready-to-use formulation of ceftiofur. How does this formulation differ from the sustained-release?

The RTU formulation is NOT extended release and should NOT be administered IV.

33

There are no potentiators available for cephalosporins, except one exception. What is that exception?

Cefpodoxime + clavulanic acid

34

What is the #1 drug choice for staphylococcal pyoderma in the dog?

Cephalexin (1st generation cephalosporin)

35

What is Cefpodoxime used for in small animals?

Cephalexin-insensitive pyoderma

36

What is Cefovecin used for in the cat?

Treatment of pyoderma

37

What is the disadvantage to Cefovecin in the dog?

Cost - too expensive

38

Put the following in order of increasing cost: cephalexin, cefovecin, cefpodoxime.

Cephalexin --> cefpodoxime --> cefovecin

39

What is the common name for Cefpodoxime?

Simplicef

40

For what is Cephapirin used in the large animal?

Mastitis in dairy cattle, lactating (Today) or dry (Tomorrow)

41

For what is Ceftiofur used in the horse?

Streptococcal pneumonia

42

For what is Ceftiofur used in the pig?

Respiratory disease, including Salmonella cholerasuis

43

For what is Ceftiofur used in dairy cattle?

Lactating or dry mastitis

44

Which drug is the drug of choice for coliform mastitis?

Ceftiofur spectramast

45

For what is Ceftiofur used in beef cattle?

1. Pneumonia
2. Foot rot

46

What are the 2 Carbapenems discussed?

1. Imipenem
2. Meropenem

47

Imipenem is metabolized by renal dehydropeptidase. What inhibits this enzyme and is thus included with imipenem?

Cilastin

48

Are Carbapenems concentration-dependent, time-dependent, or AUC-dependent?

Time-dependent

49

How would you administer Carbapenems and why?

Carbapenems are very ionic and irritation so only give IM in conjunction with lidocaine or IV.

50

What is the drug class with the WIDEST spectrum of any antimicrobial group?

Carbapenems

51

Carbapenems are mostly used for what type of infections?

Septic gram (-) infections

52

List the potentiators for the Monobactams.

There are none

53

What is the spectrum of the Monobactams?

Gram (-) aerobes

54

What is the spectrum of Bacitracin?

Gram (+) aerobes

55

How would you administer Bacitracin?

Topically, enterically, or orally (DO NOT INJECT AS THIS IS A NEPHROTOXIN)

56

For what is Bacitracin used in the pig?

Swine dysentery (Brachyspira)

57

For what is Bacitracin used in poultry?

Coccidiosis