Fluoroquinolones Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2016 > Fluoroquinolones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluoroquinolones Deck (31):
1

What is the mechanism of action of FQs?

Inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase

2

Are FQ bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Bactericidal (due to inhibition of 2 enzymes)

3

What is the spectrum of the FQs?

Gram (+) and gram (-), but NO ANAEROBES

4

Nalidixic acid is the non-fluorinated precursor that only kills some gram (-). What is added to extend the spectrum of FQs to gram (+)s?

Fluorine

5

What is the most common method of resistance to FQs?

Point mutation in DNA gyrase genes

6

Which bug has the fastest development of resistance against the FQs?

Campylobacter

7

Are FQs time, concentration, or AUC/MIC-dependent?

AUC/MIC-dependent

8

What is the MPC?

Mutation prevention concentration

9

What is the MPC for gram (+)?

x5

10

What is the MPC for gram (-)?

x10

11

In what 3 tissues do the FQs concentrate?

1. WBCs

2. Prostate

3. Brain

12

Are FQs water soluble or lipid soluble?

Lipid soluble (high Vd)

13

True or False: FQs are not absorbed well orally.

FALSE

14

True or False: FQs are excreted mostly unchanged in the urine.

TRUE

15

What toxicities are associated with the use of FQs?

1. Chondrotoxicity in neonates/juveniles

2. Retinopathies in cats

3. Exacerbates seizures in epileptic dogs

4. Herxhimer's reaction

5. Inhibit p450 enzymes

16

In which animals is the use of FQs banned?

1. Poultry

2. Food animals

17

Which FQ is non-retinotoxic and used in the cat?

Pradofloxacin

18

What is the MOA of novobiocin?

Prevents ATP from binding DNA gyrase

19

Is novobiocin bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Bacteriostatic

20

Which bacterium is included in the limited spectrum of novobiocin?

Staph aureus

21

What is the MOA of rifampin?

Inhibits RNA polymerase

22

What is the spectrum of rifampin?

1. Mycobacteria

2. Gram (+)

23

With which of the following does resistance develop rapidly, rifampin or novobiocin?

Rifampin

24

What are the 2 side effects of IV rifampin in horses?

1. Sweating

2. Hemolysis

25

What are the 3 toxicity issues associated with rifampin?

1. Orange discoloration of bodily fluids

2. Immune-mediated hepatitis

3. Inducer of microsomal enzymes

26

What is the MOA of glycopeptides?

Cell wall synthesis inhibition

27

Are glycopeptides bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Bactericidal

28

What is the spectrum of glycopeptides?

Gram (+)

29

Name 3 glycopeptide drugs.

1. Vancomycin

2. Teicoplanin

3. Avoparcin

30

Only use glycopeptides if absolutely necessary. What are 4 things to take into consideration when using this drug?

1. Vomiting likely

2. Nephrotoxic

3. Ionized in the gut (must be injected)

4. Tissue irritant (slow IV drip)

31

Rifampin can be used against Rhodococcus equi in the horse. Combine this drug with what?

Clarithromycin