Barron's: Chapter 10 - Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 10 - Personality Deck (52):
1

Personality

- the unique attitudes, behaviors, and emotions that characterize a person

2

Type A

- people tend to feel a sense of time pressure and are easily angered

3

Type B

- people tend to be relaxed and easy going

4

Stage theory

- ones in which development is thought to be discontinuous

5

Freud's psychosexual stage theory

- Freud's structural model posits that personality consists of three interworking parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The five stages of Freud's psychosexual theory of development include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.

6

Oedipus crisis

- boys sexually desire their mothers and view their fathers as rivals or their mothers' love

7

Unconscious

- a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness

8

Id

- the unconscious and contains instincts and psychic energy

9

Ego

- a person's sense of self-esteem or self-importance

10

Superego

- the part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers

11

Defense mechanisms

- In order to deal with conflict and problems in life, Freud stated that the ego employs a range of defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e. anxiety) or make good things feel better for the individual.

12

Womb envy

- the psychoanalytic term used to describe an emotion, or sense of loss, that Freud hypothesized that a man might feel about his inability to bear a child. As you can see, Freud believed that each sex has some envy for the other - he believed women have Penis Envy and men have Womb Envy.

13

Personal unconscious

- contains the painful or threatening memories and thoughts the person does not wish to confront

14

Collective unconscious

- passed down through the species and explains certain similarities we see between cultures

15

Complexes

- a related group of emotionally significant ideas that are completely or partly repressed and that cause psychic conflict leading to abnormal mental states or behavior

16

Archetypes

- universal concepts we all share as part of the human species

17

Trait theorist

- believe that we can describe people's personalities by specifying their main characteristics or traits

18

Big five traits

- extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability

19

Factor analysis

- a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors

20

Heritability

- a measure of the amount of variation in a trait in a given population that is due to genetics

21

Temperament

- emotional style and characteristic way of dealing with the world

22

Somatotype theory

- There are three basic human body types: the endomorph, characterized by a preponderance of body fat; the mesomorph, marked by a well-developed musculature; and the ectomorph, distinguished by a lack of much fat or muscle tissue.

23

Triadic reciprocality or reciprocal determinism

- a term introduced by Albert Bandura to refer to the mutual influence between three sets of factors: personal factors (e.g., cognitive, affective and biological events), the environment, behavior

24

Self-efficacy

- one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task

25

Locus of control - internal and external

- A person with an internal locus of control believes that he or she can influence events and their outcomes, while someone with an external locus of control blames outside forces for everything

26

Self-concept

- a person's global feeling about himself or herself

27

Self-esteem

- reflects a person's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth

28

Self-actualization

- the realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities, especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone

29

Unconditional positive regard

- a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy

30

Projective tests - Rorschach inkblot test, thematic aperception test (TAT)

- involve asking people to interpret ambiguous stimuli

31

Self-report inventories - MMPI

- a type of psychological test in which a person fills out a survey or questionnaire with or without the help of an investigator. Self-report inventories often ask direct questions about personal interests, values, symptoms, behaviors, and traits or personality types

32

Reliability

- refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test

33

Validity

- the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure

34

Barnum effect

- the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless

35

Sigmund Freud

- he was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst

36

Karen Horney

- she wrote two influential and controversial works, The Neurotic Personality of Our Time and New Ways in Psychoanalysis, which deviated sharply from Sigmund Freud's work

37

Nancy Chodorow

- she was a contemporary feminist psychologist and sociologist who has examined the mother-child relationship and applied feminist theories to traditional Freudian psychoanalysis. Much of her work has been used to develop the field of feminist psychoanalysis.

38

Carl Jung

- he was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology

39

Alfred Adler

- he was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

40

Hans Eyesenck

- he is best remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas within psychology.

41

Raymond Cattell

- he known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure and his exploration of many areas within empirical psychology.

42

Paul Costa

- he is an American psychologist associated with the Five Factor Model

43

Robert McCrae

- he is associated with the Five Factor Theory of personality. He has spent his career studying the stability of personality across age and culture.

44

Gordon Allport

- he was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology.

45

Hippocrates

- he was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

46

William Sheldon

- he was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

47

B. F. Skinner

- he was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher

48

Albert Bandura

- he is a contemporary psychologist specializing in developmental psychology and educational psychology. Much of his work centers around social learning theory

49

George Kelly

- he is considered the father of cognitive clinical psychology and best known for his theory of personality, Personal Construct Psychology

50

Julian Rotter

- he was an American psychologist known for developing influential theories, including social learning theory and locus of control.

51

Abraham Maslow

- he was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

52

Carl Rogers

- was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology.

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