4.2 Seeing Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 4.2 Seeing > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.2 Seeing Deck (32):
1

electromagnetic energy

pulses of energy waves that can carry information from place to place

2

wavelength

the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak

3

visible spectrum

our eyes detect only the range from about 400 to 700 billionths of a meter

4

cornea

a clear covering that protects the eye and begins to focus the incoming light

5

pupil

a small opening in the center of the eye

6

iris

the colored part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil by constricting or dilating in response to light intensity

7

lens

a structure that focuses the incoming light on the retina

8

retina

the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptor cells

9

visual accomodation

the process of changing the curvature of the lens to keep the light entering the eye focused on the retina

10

nearsighted

if focus is in front of retina

11

farsighted

the focus is behind the retina

12

optic nerve

a collection of millions of ganglion neurons that sends vast amounts of visual information, via the thalamus, to the brain

13

Rods

visual neurons that specialize in detecting black, white, and gray colors

14

Cones

visual neurons that are specialized in detecting fine detail and colors

15

fovea

which is the central point of the retina

16

blindspot

there are no photoreceptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina

17

feature detector neurons

specialized neurons, located in the visual cortex, that respond to the strength, angles, shapes, edges, and movements of a visual stimulus

18

hue

- the shade of a color
- conveyed by the wavelength of the light that enters the eye (we see shorter wavelengths as more blue and longer wavelengths as more red)

19

intensity

height of the wave (bigger or more intense waves are perceived as brighter)

20

Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894)

he theorized that color is perceived because the cones in the retina come in three types

21

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic color theory

what color we see depends on the mix of the signals from the three types of cones

22

color blindness

the inability to detect either green and/or red colors

23

opponent-process color theory

proposes that we analyze sensory information not in terms of three colors but rather in three sets of “ opponent colors‖: red-green, yellow-blue, and whiteblack

24

gestalt

a meaningfully organized whole

25

Depth perception

the ability to perceive three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distance

26

visual cliff

a mechanism that gives the perception of a dangerous drop-off, in which infants can be safely tested for their perception of depth

27

depth cues

messages from our bodies and the external environment that supply us with information about space and distance

28

Binocular depth cues

depth cues that are created by retinal image disparity—that is, the space between our eyes, and thus which require the coordination of both eyes

29

convergence

the inward turning of our eyes that is required to focus on objects that are less than about 50 feet away from us

30

Monocular depth cues

depth cues that help us perceive depth using only one eye

31

beta effect refers

the perception of motion that occurs when different images are presented next to each other in succession

32

phi phenomenon

we perceive a sensation of motion caused by the appearance and disappearance of objects that are near each other

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