8.3 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 8.3 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8.3 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Memory and Cognition Deck (14):
1

cognitive biases

- errors in memory or judgment that are caused by the inappropriate use of cognitive processes

2

source monitoring

- the ability to accurately identify the source of a memory

3

confirmation bias

- the tendency to verify and confirm our existing memories rather than to challenge and disconfirm them

4

functional fixedness

- when schemas prevent us from seeing and using information in new and nontraditional ways

5

misinformation effect

- errors in memory that occur when new but incorrect information influences existing accurate memories

6

overconfidence

- when we are more certain that our memories and judgments are accurate than we should be

7

salience

- when some stimuli, (e.g., those that are colorful, moving, or unexpected) grab our attention and make them more likely to be remembered

8

representativeness heuristic

- tendency to make judgments according to how well the event matches our expectations

9

availability heuristic

- idea that things that come to mind easily are seen as more common

10

cognitive accesibility

- idea that some memories are more highly activated than others

11

counterfactual thinking

- when we "replay" events such that they turn out differently (especially when only minor changes in the events leading up to them make a difference)

12

sleeper effect

- attitude change that occurs over time when we forget the source of information

13

flashbulb memory

- a vivid and emotional memory of an unusual event that people believe they remember very well

14

heuristics

- information-processing strategies that are useful in many cases but may lead to errors when misapplied

Decks in AP Psychology Class (68):