Barron's: Chapter 7 - Cognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 7 - Cognition Deck (62):
1

memory

- distributed around the cortex

2

three-box/information-processing model

- proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored

3

levels of processing model

- describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing

4

sensory memory

- a split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information

5

iconic memory

- a split-second perfect photograph of a scene

6

selective attention

- determines which sensory messages get encoded

7

echoic memory

- an equally brief (3-4 second) memory for sounds

8

short-term memory (working memory)

- the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time

9

chunking

- if you want to remember a list, you would group the items into no more than seven groups

10

mnemonic devices

- techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something

11

rehearsal

- repeat something so you remember it

12

long-term memory

- our permanent storage of memories

13

episodic memory

- memories of specific events, storied in a sequential series of events

14

semantic

- general knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories rather than sequentially

15

procedural memory

- memories of skills and how to perform them. these memories are sequential but might be very complicated to describe in words

16

explicit memories (also called declarative memories)

- what we usually think of first, they are conscious memories of facts or events we actively tried to remember

17

implicit memories (also called nondeclarative moments)

- unintentional memories that we might not even realized we have

18

eidetic, or photographic, memory

- one is able to perfectly and indestructiblt recall images

19

retrieval

- getting information out of memory so we can use it

20

recognition

- the process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory

21

recall

- retrieving a memory with an external cue

22

primary effect

- predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list

23

recency effect

- demonstrates our ability to recall the items at the end of a list

24

serial position effect (also called serial position curve)

- effect is seen when recall of a list is affected by the order of items in a list

25

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

- temporary inability to remember information

26

semantic network theory

- states that our brain might form new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meanings already in memory

27

flashbulb memories

- a detailed and vivid memory that is stored on one occasion and retained for a lifetime

28

state-dependent memory

- refers to the phenomenon of recalling events encoded while in particular states of consciousness

29

mood congruent memory

- the greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matched the mood we were in when the event happened

30

constructed (or reconstructed memory)

- can report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occured

31

relearning effect

- if you would have to memorize something again, it would take you less time than it did the first time you studied them

32

retroactive interference

- learning new information interferes with the recall of older information

33

proactive interference

- older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently

34

anterograde amnesia

- people cannot encode new memories but they can recall events already in memory

35

retrograde amnesia

- a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease

36

long-term potentiation

- a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity

37

phonemes

- the smallest units of sound used in a language

38

morphemes

- the smallest unit of meaningful sound

39

syntax

- words are spoken or written in a particular order

40

language acquisition

- the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate

41

overgeneralization or overregularization

- a part of the language-learning process in which children extend regular grammatical patterns to irregular words

42

language acquisition device

- the ability to learn a language rapidly as children

43

linguistic relativity hypothesis

- the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking

44

prototypes

- what we think is the most typical example of a particular concept

45

images

- the mental pictures we create in our minds of the outside world

46

algorithm

- a rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula or other foolproof method

47

heuristic

- a rule that is generally, but not always, true that we can use to make judgment in a situation

48

representativeness heuistic

- judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her mind

49

belief bias or belief preserverance

- concern our tendency not to change our beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence

50

functional fixedness

- the inability to see a new use for an object

51

confirmation bias

- we tend to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true

52

convergent thinking

- thinking pointed towards one solution

53

divergent thinking

- thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question

54

availability heuristic

- judging a situation based on examples of similar situation that come to mind initially

55

George Sperling

- he documented the existence of iconic memory (one of the sensory memory subtypes)

56

George Miller

- he established the average number of 7 items that we can remember with short term memory

57

Alexandra Luria

- was one of the founders of Cultural-Historical Psychology

58

Hermann Ebbinghaus

- he was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory

59

Noam Chomsky

- theorized that humans are born with a language acquisition device

60

Elizabeth Loftus

- cognitive psychologist and expert on human memory

61

Benjamin Whorf

- theorized that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking

62

Wolfgang Kohler

- he documented details of the "aha experience"

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