Barron's: Chapter 6 - Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 6 - Learning Deck (54):
1

Learning

- long-lasting change in behavior resulting from experience

2

Acquisition

- when an animal or person responds to the CS without a presentation of the US

3

Extinction

- the process of unlearning a behavior

4

Ivan Pavlov

- made the basic principle of classical conditioning

5

Classical conditiong

- people and animals can learn to associate neutral stimuli with stimuli that produce reflexive, involuntary responses and will learn to respond similarly to the new stimulus as they did to the old one

6

Unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS)

- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response

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Unconditioned response (UR or UCR)

- the unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to the unconditioned stimulus

8

Conditioned response (CR)

- when someone has come to associate that stimulus with another

9

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

- a neutral stimulus

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delayed conditioning

- the CS is presented before the US and it (CS) stays on until the US is presented. This is generally the best, especially when the delay is short

11

trace conditioning

- the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US

12

simultaneous conditioning

- CS and US are presented at the same time

13

backward conditioning

- US is presented first and is followed by the CS. this method is particularly ineffective

14

spontaneous recovery

- after a conditioned response has been extinguished and no further training of the animals has taken place, the response briefly reappears upon presentation of the conditioned stimulus

15

generalization

- the tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimuli

16

discrimination

- the ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli

17

aversive conditioning

- a type of behavior conditioning in which noxious stimuli are associated with undesirable or unwanted behavior that is to be modified or abolished

18

second-order (higher-order) conditioning

- a form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus

19

learned taste aversions

- when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance

20

operant conditioning

- a kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one's behaviors

21

law of effect

- if the consequences of a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response connection will be strengthened and the likelihood of the behavior will increase

22

instrumental learning

- if the consequences of a behavior are unpleasant, the S-R connection will weaken and the likelihood of the behavior will decrease

23

skinner box

- a box that has a way to deliver food to an animal and a lever to press or disk to peck in order to get the food

24

reinforcer, reinforcement

- reinforcement is defined by its consequences; anything that makes a behavior more likely to occur is a reinforcer

25

positive reinforcement

- the addition of something pleasant

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negative reinforcement

- the removal of something unpleasant

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punishment

- affect behavior by using unpleasant consequences

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positive punishment

- addition of something unpleasant

29

omission traiining

- the removal of something pleasant

30

shaping

- reinforces the steps used to reach the desired behavior

31

chaining

- we animals can be taught to perform a number of responses successively in order to get a reward

32

primary reinforcers

- they are rewards

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secondary reinforcers

- things we have learned to value

34

token economy

- every time people perform a desired behavior, the are given a token

35

reinforcement schedules - FI, FR, VI, VR

- fixed-ration (FR) schedule provides reinforcement after a set number of responses
- variable-ratio (VR) schedule also provides reinforcement based on the number of bar presses, but that number varies
- fixed-interval (FI) schedule requires that a certain amount of time elapse before a bar press will result in a reward
- variable-interval (VI) schedule varies the amount of time required to elapse before a response will result in reinforcement

36

continuous reinforcement

- when you are first teaching a new behavior, rewarding the behavior each time

37

partial-reinforcement effect

- behaviors will be more resistant to extinction if the animal has not been reinforced continuously

38

instinctive drift

- the tendency for animals to forgo rewards to pursue their typical patterns of behavior

39

observational learning or modeling

- occurs by observing, retaining, and replicating behavior seen in others. The individuals performing the imitated behavior are called models.

40

latent learning

- involves gaining knowledge even though that learning is not immediately evident

41

insight learning

- in human learning when people recognize relationships that can help them solve new problems

42

John Watson

- he and his wife Rosalie Rayner did the Albert experiment
- opened the first behaviorism school

43

Rosalie Rayner

- she and her husband John Watson did the Albert experiment

44

John Garcia

- he is an American psychologist, most known for his research on taste aversion

45

Robert Koelling

- studied taste aversion in rats noticing rats would avoid water in radiation chambers.

46

Edward Thorndike

- one of the first people to research operant conditioning

47

B.F. Skinner

- best-known psychologist to research operant conditioning

48

Robert Rescorla

- he is an American psychologist that specialized in the involvement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning focusing on animal learning and behavior.v

49

Albert Bandura

- studied observational learning/modeling

50

Edward Tolman

- he founded what is now a branch of psychology known as purposive behaviorism

51

Wolfgang Kohler

- was a German psychologist and phenomenologist who, like Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Koffka, contributed to the creation of Gestalt psychology.

52

escape learning

- allows one to terminate an aversive stimulus

53

avoidance learning

- enable one to avoid the unpleasant stimulus altogether

54

premack principle

- it explains that whichever of two activities is preferred can be used to reinforce the activity that is not preferred

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