Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 2 - Methods Deck (51):

1

## hindsight bias

### when people have the tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along

2

## applied research

### a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven purpose.

3

## basic research

### explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications

4

## hypothesis

### expresses a relationship between two variables

5

## variables

### things that can vary among the participants in the research

6

## theory

### aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory

7

## operational definition

### you explain how you will measure it

8

## valid research

### when it measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate

9

## reliable research

### when something is replicated and the results are consistent

10

## random selection

### when every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

11

## stratified samplig

### a process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria

12

## laboratory expiriments

### conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment

13

## field experiment

### conducted out in the world

14

## confounding variable

### any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable

15

## assignment

### the process by which participants are put into a group, experimental or control

16

## random assignment

### means that each participant has an equal change of being placed into any group

17

## experimenter bias

### the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis

18

## double-blind procedure

### occurs when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research

19

## single blind

### occurs when only the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned

20

## demand characteristics

### cues about the purpose of the study

21

## response or subject bias

### the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways

22

## social desirability

### the tendency to try to give answers that reflect well upon them

23

## Hawthorne effect

### the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed

24

## placebo method

### A remarkable phenomenon in which a placebo -- a fake treatment, an inactive substance like sugar, distilled water, or saline solution -- can sometimes improve a patient's condition simply because the person has the expectation that it will be helpful

25

## counterbalancing

### using participants as their own control group

26

## correlation

### expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause

27

## positive correlation

### between two things means that the presence of one things predicts the presence of the other

28

## negative correlation

### means that the presence of one things predicts the absence of the other

29

## survey method

### involves asking people to fill out surveys

30

## naturalistic observation

### observe participants i their natural habitats without interacting with them at all

31

## case study method

### used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants

32

## descriptive statistics

### describe a set of data

33

## y-axis (vertical)

### always represents frequency

34

## central tendency

### attempt to mark the center of a distribution

35

## mean

### average of the scores in a distribution

36

## median

### the central score in the distribution

37

## positively skewed

### when a distribution includes an extreme score

38

## negatively skewed

### when the skew is cause by a particularly low score

39

## measures of variability

### another type of statistical measures

40

## z scores

### measure the distance of a score form the mean in units of standard deviation

41

## normal curve

### a theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the area under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined

42

## percentiles

### indicate the distance of a score from 0

43

## correlation

### measures the relationship between two variables

44

## correlation coefficients

### - range from 1 and +1 where -1 is a perfect, negative correlation and +1 is a perfect, positive correlation

45

## scatter plot

### graphs pairs of values, one on the y-axis and one on the x-axis

46

## line of best fit, or regression line

### the line drawn through the scatter plot that minimized the distance of all points from the line

47

## inferential statistics

### used to determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population form which the sample was selected

48

## sampling error

### the extent to which the sample differs from the population

49

## p value

### gives the probability that the difference between the groups is due to chance

50

## anonymity

### when the researchers do not collect any data that enable them to match a person's responses with his or her name

51