Barron's: Chapter 2 - Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 2 - Methods Deck (51):
1

hindsight bias

when people have the tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along

2

applied research

a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven purpose.

3

basic research

explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications

4

hypothesis

expresses a relationship between two variables

5

variables

things that can vary among the participants in the research

6

theory

aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory

7

operational definition

you explain how you will measure it

8

valid research

when it measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate

9

reliable research

when something is replicated and the results are consistent

10

random selection

when every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

11

stratified samplig

a process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria

12

laboratory expiriments

conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment

13

field experiment

conducted out in the world

14

confounding variable

any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable

15

assignment

the process by which participants are put into a group, experimental or control

16

random assignment

means that each participant has an equal change of being placed into any group

17

experimenter bias

the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis

18

double-blind procedure

occurs when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research

19

single blind

occurs when only the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned

20

demand characteristics

cues about the purpose of the study

21

response or subject bias

the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways

22

social desirability

the tendency to try to give answers that reflect well upon them

23

Hawthorne effect

the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed

24

placebo method

A remarkable phenomenon in which a placebo -- a fake treatment, an inactive substance like sugar, distilled water, or saline solution -- can sometimes improve a patient's condition simply because the person has the expectation that it will be helpful

25

counterbalancing

using participants as their own control group

26

correlation

expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause

27

positive correlation

between two things means that the presence of one things predicts the presence of the other

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negative correlation

means that the presence of one things predicts the absence of the other

29

survey method

involves asking people to fill out surveys

30

naturalistic observation

observe participants i their natural habitats without interacting with them at all

31

case study method

used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants

32

descriptive statistics

describe a set of data

33

y-axis (vertical)

always represents frequency

34

central tendency

attempt to mark the center of a distribution

35

mean

average of the scores in a distribution

36

median

the central score in the distribution

37

positively skewed

when a distribution includes an extreme score

38

negatively skewed

when the skew is cause by a particularly low score

39

measures of variability

another type of statistical measures

40

z scores

measure the distance of a score form the mean in units of standard deviation

41

normal curve

a theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the area under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined

42

percentiles

indicate the distance of a score from 0

43

correlation

measures the relationship between two variables

44

correlation coefficients

- range from 1 and +1 where -1 is a perfect, negative correlation and +1 is a perfect, positive correlation

45

scatter plot

graphs pairs of values, one on the y-axis and one on the x-axis

46

line of best fit, or regression line

the line drawn through the scatter plot that minimized the distance of all points from the line

47

inferential statistics

used to determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population form which the sample was selected

48

sampling error

the extent to which the sample differs from the population

49

p value

gives the probability that the difference between the groups is due to chance

50

anonymity

when the researchers do not collect any data that enable them to match a person's responses with his or her name

51

confidentiality

the researcher will not identify the source of any of the data

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