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Flashcards in 1.1 Psychology as a Science Deck (24):
1

Psychology

the scientific study of mind and behavior

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Meaning of the world psychology

comes from the Greek words “psyche," meaning life, and “logos," meaning explanation

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Where do most psychologists work?

in research laboratories, hospitals, and other field settings where they study the behavior of humans and animals

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What do all psychologists have in common?

they rely on scientific methods

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Research psychologists

use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior

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Psychologist-practitioners

such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others

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data

any information collected through formal observation or measurement

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hindsight bias

the tendency to think that we could have predicted something that has already occurred that we probably would not have been able to predict

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What have scientific studies found out about people?

though it is easy to think that everyday situations have commonsense answers, scientific studies have
found that people are not always as good at predicting outcomes as they think they are

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What does employing the scientific method allow?

it allows the scientist to collect empirical data objectively, which adds to the accumulation of scientific knowledge.

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Empirical methods

includes the processes of collecting and organizing data and drawing conclusions about those data

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scientific method

the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research

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Values

they are personal statements such as “Abortion should not be permitted in this country," “I will go to heaven when I die," or “ It is important to study psychology."

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Facts

they are objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical study. Examples are “ There were more than 21,000 homicides in the United States in 2009," or “ Research demonstrates that individuals who are exposed to highly stressful situations over long periods of time develop more health problems than those who are not."

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levels of explanation

the perspectives that are used to understand behavior

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Lower levels of explanation

they are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones

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middle levels of explanation

they refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people

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highest levels of explanation

they relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures

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Why are all levels of explanation essential?

for a better understanding of human behavior

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What is a major goal of Psychology?

to predict behavior by understanding its causes

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Individual differences

the variations among people on physical or psychological dimensions

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multiply determined

behavior that is produced by many factors

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Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

he argued that many psychological disorders were caused by memories that we have repressed and thus remain outside our consciousness

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Psychological phenomena

they are complex, and making predictions about them is difficult because of individual differences and because they are multiply determined at different levels of explanation

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