Flashcards in 1.1 Psychology as a Science Deck (24):
the scientific study of mind and behavior
Meaning of the world psychology
comes from the Greek words “psyche," meaning life, and “logos," meaning explanation
Where do most psychologists work?
in research laboratories, hospitals, and other field settings where they study the behavior of humans and animals
What do all psychologists have in common?
they rely on scientific methods
use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior
such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others
any information collected through formal observation or measurement
the tendency to think that we could have predicted something that has already occurred that we probably would not have been able to predict
What have scientific studies found out about people?
though it is easy to think that everyday situations have commonsense answers, scientific studies have
found that people are not always as good at predicting outcomes as they think they are
What does employing the scientific method allow?
it allows the scientist to collect empirical data objectively, which adds to the accumulation of scientific knowledge.
includes the processes of collecting and organizing data and drawing conclusions about those data
the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research
they are personal statements such as “Abortion should not be permitted in this country," “I will go to heaven when I die," or “ It is important to study psychology."
they are objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical study. Examples are “ There were more than 21,000 homicides in the United States in 2009," or “ Research demonstrates that individuals who are exposed to highly stressful situations over long periods of time develop more health problems than those who are not."
levels of explanation
the perspectives that are used to understand behavior
Lower levels of explanation
they are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones
middle levels of explanation
they refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people
highest levels of explanation
they relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures
Why are all levels of explanation essential?
for a better understanding of human behavior
What is a major goal of Psychology?
to predict behavior by understanding its causes
the variations among people on physical or psychological dimensions
behavior that is produced by many factors
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
he argued that many psychological disorders were caused by memories that we have repressed and thus remain outside our consciousness