Barron's: Chapter 12 - Abnormal Psychology Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Barron's: Chapter 12 - Abnormal Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 12 - Abnormal Psychology Deck (46):
1

Insane

- mental illness of such a severe nature that a person cannot distinguish fantasy from reality, cannot conduct her/his affairs due to psychosis, or is subject to uncontrollable impulsive behavior

2

DSM

- it offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders

3

Anxiety disorders

- a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear

4

Specific phobia

- any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations

5

Agoraphobia

- extreme or irrational fear of crowded spaces or enclosed public places

6

Social anxiety disorder

- an anxiety disorder in which a person has an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations

7

Panic disorder

- a psychiatric disorder in which debilitating anxiety and fear arise frequently and without reasonable cause

8

Somatic symptom disorders

- a psychiatric disorder in which debilitating anxiety and fear arise frequently and without reasonable cause

9

Conversion disorder

- a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation

10

Dissociative disoers

- conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception

11

Psychogenic amnesia

- a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical memory loss, said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years

12

Dissociative identity disorder

- a condition wherein a person's identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personalities

13

Depressive disorders

- a condition wherein a person's identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personalities

14

Major depressive disorder

- a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause

15

Seasonal affective disorder

- depression associated with late autumn and winter and thought to be caused by a lack of light

16

Bipolar disorder

- a mental disorder marked by alternating periods of elation and depression

17

Cognitive triad

- an irrational and pessimistic view of the three key elements of a person's belief system present in depression

18

Learned helplessness

- a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed. It is thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression

19

Schizophrenic disorders

- a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real

20

Delusions of persecution

- a set of delusional conditions in which the affected person believes they are being persecuted

21

Delusions of grandeur

- a false impression of one's own importance

22

Hallucinations

- sensations that appear to be real but are created within the mind

23

Inappropriate or flat affect

- lack of emotional expression

24

Catatonia

- abnormality of movement and behavior arising from a disturbed mental state (typically schizophrenia). It may involve repetitive or purposeless overactivity, or catalepsy, resistance to passive movement, and negativism

25

Waxy flexibility

- a psychomotor symptom of catatonic schizophrenia which leads to a decreased response to stimuli and a tendency to remain in an immobile posture.

26

Dopamine hypothesis

- it is attributing symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.

27

Tardive dyskinesia

- a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face and jaw.

28

Double bind

- a situation in which a person is confronted with two irreconcilable demands or a choice between two undesirable courses of action.

29

Diathesis-stress model

- a psychological theory that attempts to explain behavior as a predispositional vulnerability together with stress from life experiences.

30

Personality disorders

- a deeply ingrained and maladaptive pattern of behavior of a specified kind, typically manifest by the time one reaches adolescence and causing long-term difficulties in personal relationships or in functioning in society.

31

Antisocial personality disorder

- a mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others. This behavior is often criminal.

32

Dependent personality disorder

- characterized by a pervasive fear that leads to “clinging behavior” and usually manifests itself by early adulthood

33

Paranoid personality disorder

- a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others

34

Narcissistic personality disorder

- a disorder in which a person has an inflated sense of self-importance

35

Histrionic personality disorder

- a mental health condition that affects the way a person thinks, perceives, and relates to others

36

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

- a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment

37

Post-traumatic stress disorder

- a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world

38

Paraphilia or psychosexual disorder

- when an atypical sexual interest causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others

39

Anorexia nervosa

- a lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition)

40

Bulimia

- an emotional disorder involving distortion of body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight, in which bouts of extreme overeating are followed by depression and self-induced vomiting, purging, or fasting

41

Autism spectrum disorder

- a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others

42

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

- a chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness

43

Dementia

- a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning

44

Aaron Bek

- he is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy, and his pioneering theories are widely used in the treatment of clinical depression.

45

Martin Seligman

- he has been an avid promoter within the scientific community for the field of positive psychology.

46

David Rosenham

- he is known for the Rosenham experiment, a study challenging the validity of psychiatry diagnoses.

Decks in AP Psychology Class (68):