Biological Psychology Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Biological Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Psychology Deck (66):
1

dendrites

receive messages from other cells and conduct impulses toward the cell body

2

cell body

the cell's life support center

3

axon

the extension of a neuron through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscle glands

4

myelin sheath

a layer of fatty cells covering the axon, helps speed up neural impulses

5

terminal branches of axon

form junctions with other cells

6

neuropsychology

concerned with the links between biology and behavior (also called Biological Psychology)

7

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

8

resting potential

slightly negative charge; dormant
*reach threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites

9

threshold

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse; excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals must equal a minimum intensity

10

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

11

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between neurons

12

agonist

mimic neurotransmitters

13

antagonist

block neurotransmitters

14

acetylcholine

involved with learning and memory (Ach)

15

dopamine

deals with motor movements and alertness
lack of linked to parkinson's disease
too much linked to schizophrenia

16

serotonin

involved in mood control
lack of linked to clinical depression

17

endorphins

natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
endorphin release in a runner's high

18

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

19

neural networks

interconnected neural cells; more connections made as experience gained

20

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

21

somatic nervous system

controls voluntary muscle movement by utilizing motor neurons

22

autonomic nervous system

controls the automatic functions of the body; divided into the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems

23

sympathetic nervous system

arouses the body, Flight or Fight response

24

parasympathetic nervous system

calms the body

25

sensory neurons (Afferent neurons)

sends incoming information to CNS (AT the brain)
few million

26

interneurons

CNS internal communication neurons; intervene b/w sensory and motor
billions

27

motor neurons (Efferent neurons)

sends outgoing information from CNS to muscle and glands (exit the brain)
few million

28

reflex

automatic response to sensory stimulus; interneuron reacts to sensory neuron w/o going to brain

29

left brain functions

language

30

right brain functions

art and music

31

corpus callosum

connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communticate

32

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the brain
*responsible for automatic survival functions

33

medulla

base of brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing

34

pons

connects different brain regions together, involved in facial expressions

35

reticular formation

nerve network that plays an important role in controlling arousal (consciousness)

36

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem
**it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

37

cerebellum

"little brain" attached to the rear of brainstem, coordinates voluntary movement and balance, formulates implicit memories

38

limbic system

associated with emotions and drives

39

amygdala

linked to emotion, especially aggression and fear

40

hippocampus

linked to explicit memory

41

pituitary gland

mast endocrine gland, linked to growth

42

cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemisphere

43

frontal lobes

involved in speaking, muscle movements, and in making plans and judgement
***motor cortex

44

motor cortex

are at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

45

parietal lobes

involved in sensations, pressure, and pain
***sensory cortex

46

sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensation

47

occipital lobes

include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
***contains visual cortex

48

temporal lobes

include the auditory areas
**contains the auditory cortex

49

association areas

"uncommitted" areas that are not involved in primary functions but play a role in learning, remembering, and thinking

50

accidents

damage to brain regions can tell us about their functions

51

lesions

tissue destruction

52

electroencaphalogram (EEG)

electrodes placed on the scalp create an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
**this is how we measure brain waves during sleep

53

computed tomography (CAT) scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles combined by a computer into a composite presentation of a slice through the body

54

positron emission tomography (PET) scan

a visual display of brain activity the detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

55

magnitude resonance imaging (MRI)

uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

56

plasticity

the ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged
**the younger you are the more plastic your brain is

57

neural networks

connected neurons; increase speed and efficiency of communication

58

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

59

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage to Broca's area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke' area (impaired understanding)

60

broca's area

directs the muscle movements involved in speech
**broken speech
**left frontal lobe

61

wernicke's area

involved in language comprehension and expression
**meaningless words
*left temporal lobe

62

endocrine system

set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
**snail mail (ES) vs. Email (NS)

63

angular gyrus

receives visual information and recodes it into auditory form

64

pituitary gland

ES's most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
**under the influence of the hypothalamus

65

hormones

chemical messengers that are produced in one tissue and affect another
**can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression

66

adrenal glands

secrete adrenaline to arouse body in time of stress