Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Motivation, Emotion, and Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Deck (69):
1

instinct theory/evolutionary perspective

we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors
unlearned behaviors that have a fixed pattern throughout a species
primarily applies to animals

2

drive reduction theory

behavior is motivated by physiological needs
these physiological needs create physiological drives
your body's goal is to maintain homeostasis (pH and pOH balance)

3

push factor

our physiological need to reduce drives (internal)

4

pull factor

incentive environmental stimuli that motivate behavior (external)

5

arousal theory

we are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal
if our drives are being met, we are more motivated to engage in behavior not related to physiological drives

6

Yerkes-Dodson Law

a moderate amount of stress or anxiety increases our performance

7

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

describes our motivation for certain behaviors

8

stomach contractions

accompany our feelings of hunger, but hunger remains if stomach is removed, therefore hunger does not come solely from the stomach

9

blood sugar glucose

our hormone insulin naturally uses glucose (a blood sugar in our bodies) for a variety of functions
when our glucose gets too low, our brain will trigger hunger

10

brain basis of hunger

stimulation to lateral hypothalamus increases hunger
(LH = Large Hunger)
stimulation to ventromedial hypothalamus decreases hunger

11

stomach hormones

a hormone that increases hunger is ghrelin
hormones that decrease hunger include obestatin, PYY, and Leptin

12

set point theory

your body acts like a "weight thermostat"
you experience changes in hunger and metabolism when your body rises above or falls below your set weight

13

metabolism

body's rate of energy expenditure

14

obesity

severely overweight to the point it causes health issues

15

bulimia nervosa

characterized by binging and purging

16

anorexia nervosa

starve/exercise themselves to below 85% of natural body weight (see themselves as fat)

17

what causes eating disorders?

genetics, body dissatisfaction, western cultures idolize thin

18

kinsey studies

interviewed almost 20,000 people in the 1940s and 1950s about their sexual behavior

19

masters and johnson study

during the late 50s and early 60s, they attaches people to recording equipment and measured physiological responses during sex and masturbation
they determined the human sexual response cycle

20

sexual response cycle

stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution (with refraction periods)

21

the psychology of sex

despite stereotypes, both men and women become aroused to seeing, hearing, and reading erotic material
the more an individual views sexually violent media, the more their acceptance of rape and willingness to hurt women increases
viewing images of sexually attractive men and women tends to make people devalue their own partners
this also applies to viewing pornography/devaluing your own sex life

22

adolescent sexuality

compared with European teens, American teens have a lower rate of contraceptive use, a higher rate of teen pregnancy, and a higher rate of abortion Why?
ignorance, guilt about sex, alcohol use, mass media

23

sexual orientation

-the enduring attraction toward another person
-no link between environment and sexual orientation
-therefore sexual orientation is likely biologically determined
-Simon LeVay determined there were hypothalamus cluster size differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals
-later research showed general brain hemisphere size differences in different orientations
-homosexuality does appear to run in families
-hormone levels in the prenatal environment have also been shown to affect orientation

24

need for achievement

this area measures your need to achieve success in life
people with high need in this area like moderately difficult tasks

25

Intrinsic motivators

exists within the individual
a desire to perform behavior effectively for it own sake

26

extrinsic motivators

exists outside the individual
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

27

need power

this area measures your need to influence and/or control other people
***if high in this area, you like to be in charge of situations

28

need for intimacy

this area measures your need to have close and warm relationships with others
these can be romantic relationships, friendships, family, etc.

29

flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

30

industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

31

personnel psychology

selecting and evaluating workers

32

organizational psychology

considers how work and management influences worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity

33

human factors psychology

explores how machines and environments can be optimally designed to fit human abilities

34

theory X management

assumes employees are extrinsically motivated, lazy/dislike work

35

theory Y management

assumes employees are intrinsically motivated and ambitious

36

task leadership

goal oriented leaders who focus on organizing work

37

social leadership

group orientated leaders who focus on building teamwork

38

approach-approach conflict

choice between two positive outcomes

39

avoidance-avoidance conflict

choice between two negative outcomes

40

approach-avoidance conflict

one choice that has both positive and negative outcomes

41

James-Lange Theory

the theory that experience of emotion is our awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
***a stimulus causes our body to respond first which then causes our emotion

42

Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of the emotion
***A stimulus causes our body response and emotion at the same time

43

Singer-Schachter's Two-Factor Theory

the theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
***combines the two previous theories and adds cognition

44

Opponent Process Theory of Emotion

when an emotion is experienced, its opposite is repressed; when the emotion-causing stimulus is no longer present, the opposite emotion intensifies
***explains some thrill-seeking behaviors like skydiving

45

two-track brain

sensory input may be (1) routed directly to the amygdala for an instant emotional reaction or (2) to the cortex for analysis before reaction
***brain "shortcuts" its normal process during dangerous situation

46

spillover effect

emotional arousal from one event can "spill over" to a subsequent event

47

adaptation level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

48

relative deprivation

the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves

49

catharsis

emotional release; research shows cathartic release typically breads more anger

50

autonomic nervous system

experience of emotion causes physiological arousal

51

Compared to men, women...

read people's emotional cues better, spot lies better, express empathy and happiness more, but express anger less

52

emotional expression

people more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one

53

universal expressions

infants come equipped with seven naturally occurring emotions that are culturally universal

54

happiness

correlated with self-esteem, close friendships, satisfying marriage, etc.

55

fear

fear is adaptive; prepares our bodies to flee from danger
biologically predisposed to learn certain fears faster--snakes, spiders, etc.

56

anger

genders respond differently, chronic hostility is linked to heart disease

57

general adaptation syndrome

body's adaptive response to stress in 3 phases

58

alarm

Sympathetic Nervous System begins activating in response to stressor

59

resistance

body's resources mobilize to fight challenge

60

exhaustion

over extension of stress causes depletion of body's reserves

61

social readjustment rating scale

a stressor survey created to determine how much stress an individual has faced

62

type A personality

people who are competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger prone
***often have more "negative emotions" which causes health detriments

63

Type B personality

people who are easygoing and relaxed
***typically experience better, but also accomplish less

64

coronary heart disease

because of the increase in stress in the average Americans lifestyle, it became the leading cause of death by the 1950s; remains so today

65

-stress and *health indicators

-pessimism
-learned helplessness
*higher socioeconomic status
*high social support
*laughing
*owners of pets
-DNA shortens and decays

66

aerobic exercise

has been shown to be one of the best ways to manage stress, depression, and anxiety
boosts immune system
clears your mind

67

meditation

has also been shown to decrease blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen consumption

68

biofeedback

(a system for electronically feeding back information regarding physiological states) can help people monitor and control their stress

69

alternative medicines

acupuncture
massage therapy
aromatherapy
***inconclusive evidence