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AP Psychology > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (45):
1

Sigmund Freud

psychoanalysis
unconscious
free association
dream analysis

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Psychoanalysis

attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts (believed to be the cause of you personality)

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Unconscious

unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, desires, urges, memories

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Free Association

exploring the unconscious by relaxing and saying whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing

5

Id

operates on pleasure principle, strives to satisfy selfish impulses and needs, not constrained by reality, wants to avoid pain and receive instant gratification

6

Ego

operates on reality principle, mediates the demands of the id and superego, primary acting force of the personality and structure

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Superego

voice of conscious, focuses on how one ought to behave, thinks of what's best for society, strives for perfection

8

Oral Stage

(0-18 months)
Pleasure centers on mouth; sucking, biting, chewing
Oral Fixation

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Anal Stage

(18-36 months)
Pleasure focuses on bowl and bladder elimination
Demand for Control

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Phallic Stage

(3-6 years)
Pleasure zone is in the genitals
Oedipus or Electra Complex

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Latency Stage

(6 to puberty)
Dormant sexual feelings

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Genital Stage

(Puberty on)
maturation of sexual interest

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Defense Mechanisms

Ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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Displacement

shifting impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

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Projection

disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing to others

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Sublimation

directing unacceptable urges or desires into socially acceptable behavior

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Regression

returning to an earlier more comforting infantile form of behavior

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Rationalization

offering self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening reason's for one's actions

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Repression

banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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Reaction Formation

expressing the opposite of how one truly feels

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Denial

refusing to acknowledge what has, is, or will happen

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Alfred Adler

inferiority complex: Children learning to overcome inadequacies from parents- the pattern they learn produces a lifestyle

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Karen Horney

Childhood anxiety: a child's helplessness requires him/her to seek love and security

24

Carl Jung

Collective unconscious: a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from the species' history

25

TAT

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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Rorshach Inkblot Test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

27

First born

leader

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Middle born

mediator

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Last born

rebel

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Humanistic theory

focus on human potential for growth

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self concept

all our thoughts and feelings we have about ourselves

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs

1. physiological
2. safety
3. love and belonging
4. esteem
5. self-actualization
6. self-transcendence

33

Carl Rogers

believed that in order for us to develop into healthy humans, we need genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

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Unconditional Positive Regard

an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

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self-serving bias

we view ourselves as better than average

36

criticisms

-reinforces western cultural values
-hierarchy may reflect only Maslow's personal values and ideals
-fails to appreciate reality of human capacity for evill

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Personality Inventories

questionnaire used to measure a person's score opn certain traits

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MMPI

Minnesota Multiphasic personality Inventory- most widely used

39

CANOE

Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness to experience
Extroversion

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Albert Bandera

Proposed social cognitive theory
bobo doll study

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Reciprocal determinsim

how we interact with the environment shapes who we are and vice versa

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Self-efficacy

our perceived ability to succeed

43

locus of control

do we control what happens to us (internal locus) or do we have no control over life (external locus)

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learned helplessness

no control over repeated bad events leads to giving up

45

optimism vs pessimism

measure of attitude and outlook