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AP Psychology > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (54):
1

Attribution Theory

suggests how we explain someone's behavior
-we credit the situation or the person's personality

2

Fundamental Attribution Error

For negative events, we attribute others' behavior to their disposition, but our behavior to the situation

3

Foot-in-the-door

a compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request

4

Door-in-the-face

a compliance tactic that involves first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down followed by making a second, more reasonable request.

5

Low-ball

a compliance tactic that involves first gaining closure and commitment to the idea you want the person to accept and then changing the agreement to make it more appealing to you

6

Ingratiation

a compliance tactic that involves getting someone to like you in order to obtain a compliance with a request

7

Value

a principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable

8

Attitude

a belief or feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to something

9

Cognitive Dissonance

occurs when a person holds two or more attitudes that contradict one another

10

Role Playing

can affect attitudes
can cause you to strive to follow social prescriptions, which then may make you adopt those attitudes

11

Central Route to Persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

12

Peripheral Route to Persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

13

Social Norms

unwritten but understood rules for accepted and expected behavior

14

Conformity

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

15

Normative Influence

resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disappointment

16

informational influence

resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions

17

Obedience

occurs when you change your opinions, judgments, or actions because someone in a position of authority told you to

18

Passionate Love

an aroused of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of the relationship

19

Companionate Love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
-Equity -Self disclosure

20

Stereotype

"set type": a general belief about a group of people

21

Prejudice

"pre judge": an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members based on stereotypes you have about them

22

Discrimination

"action": unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

23

Ingroup Bias

tendency to favor one's own group

24

Ethnocentrism

the emotional attitude to one's own race, nation, or culture is superior to all others

25

Scapegoat Theory

theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

26

Just-World-Phenomenon

the belief that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get

27

Other-Race Effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

28

Aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

29

Aggression: Genetic influences

-hereditary
-Y chromosome is associated with aggression

30

Aggression: Neural influences

-Amygdala
-Brain injuries

31

Aggression: Biochemical Influences

-Hormones, alcohol, other substances
-testosterone

32

Frustration-Aggression Principle

frustration creates anger which unleashes aggression

33

Aggression: Psychological Influences

-aggression is rewarding, bullying
-ostracism, columbine
-can be learned by observing, GTA

34

Altruism

the unselfish regard for others' welfare

35

Social Exchange Theory

we help if it will benefit us somehow

36

Social Responsibility Norm

expectation that we help those dependent on us

37

Reciprocity Norm

we help those who have helped us (giving gift norms)

38

Bystander Effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

39

Attraction factors

1. Proximity
2. Similarity
3. Physical attractiveness

40

Mere Exposure Effect

repeated exposure to stimuli increases liking for them

41

Male Standards of beauty

symmetrical face, square jaw, .9 waist to hip ratio

42

Female Standards of beauty

young, symmetrical faces, small noses, big eyes and lips, .7 waist to hip ratio

43

Social facilitation

when an individual's performance gets better in the presence of others (Do well, do better)

44

Social inhibition

when an individual's performance gets worse in the presence of others (do bad, do worse)

45

Social loafing

the reduced effort of each member in a group. The larger the group, the less effort each person puts forth.

46

Group Think

when desire for harmony in decision-making overrides a realistic solution to the problem

47

Deindividuation

the loss of self awareness and self restraint in a group situation. Brings about feelings of excitement and anonymity

48

Group Polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

49

Conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals. or ideas

50

Ingroup

"us", people with whom one shares a common identity

51

Outgroup

"them", those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup

52

Mirror-image perceptions

mutual views help by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

53

Superordinate goals

shared goals that unite groups in a common cause to overcome differences

54

Social Trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive behavior