Psychological Disorders and Therapy Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Psychological Disorders and Therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychological Disorders and Therapy Deck (62):
1

early theories about psychological disorders

thought to be caused by:
-being possessed by evil spirits
-alignment of the stars
-godlike powers

2

trephination

spirit possession was often treated by drilling holes into the skull to release to spirit

3

deviant

being different from most other people in one's culture; mat vary by context or time

4

distressful

causes the individual pain, anxiety, etc.

5

dysfunctional

impairs the individual's daily life

6

medical model

mental illness needs to be diagnosed on basis of symptoms and cured through therapy and treatment

7

biospsychosocial approach

focuses more on the causes of the disorder rather than treatment

8

*primary prevention*

measure taken to prevent the disease from occurring the first place
ie: wearing sunblock to prevent sunburn

9

secondary prevention

measures used after disease has occurred but before the person notices anything
ie: doctor checking for new moles

10

tertiary prevention

targets a person who already has symptoms of a disease
ie: surgery, chemotherapy

11

DSM-5

APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
aka the psychiatrists bible

12

people-first language

seeing individuals as people first and not as being defined by their disorder "a person with schizophrenia" vs. "a schizophrenic"

13

Rosenhan study

eight associates faked hallucination symptoms, all were admitted with schizophrenia (none exposed as imposters)

14

panic disorder

characterized by repeated panic attacks (episodes of intense dread) in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, and other frightening sensations)

15

separation anxiety disorder

a psychological condition in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has strong emotional attachment

16

specific phobia

persistent irrational fear of a specific object, event, or person

17

agoraphobia

fear of avoidance of dangerous or uncomfortable situations in which escape may be difficult (typically vast openness or crowdedness)

18

social anxiety disorder

characterized by intense fear in one or more social situations due to anxiety over potential social interactions

19

selective mutism

a person who is normally capable of speech does not speak in specific situations or to specific people

20

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

an individual is continually tense, apprehensive, expecting, disaster, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal with no causal root

21

major depressive disorder

characterized by persistent and pervasive low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and a loss of self interest or pleasure in normal activities with no causal factor

22

season affective disorder (SAD)

depression experienced during the winter months due to lack of sunlight

23

bipolar disorder

characterized by periods of mania (elevated mood and activity/energy) alternating with periods of depression

24

enuresis

the repeated inability to control urination in children or adults old enough to be expected to exercise such control (approximately age 5 and older)

25

encopresis

the repeated voluntary or involuntary fecal soiling in children who have usually already been toilet trained

26

dissociative amnesia

individual experiences retrograde autobiographical loss of memory with no physiological basis for the disruption

27

dissociative fugue

subset of dissociative amnesia where a person forgets their past, creates a brand new identity, and begins a new life in a different location

28

depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD)

a mental disorder where a person experiences a feeling of watching oneself act with no control over a situation (depersonalization) and a belief that one's external world is unreal (derealization)

29

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

30

pica disorder

characterized by an appetite for substances that are non-nutritive, such as paper, clay, metal, chalk, soil, glass, or sand

31

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by food intake restriction, distorted body self-perception, and possible excessive exercise

32

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging and possible excessive exercise

33

intellectual disability

characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning defined at an IQ score below 70

34

autism spectrum disorder

characterized by social defects and communication difficulties, repetitive behaviors and interests, sensory issues, and in some cases, cognitive delays

35

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

characterized by significant problems with attention and inhibition control, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness

36

specific learning disorder

the impediment of ability to learn or use specific academic skills (such as reading, writing, or arithmetic) which are the foundation of other academic learning

37

tourette's disorder

characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic

38

obsessive-compulsive disorder

characterized by persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) causing the feeling of needing to engage in a particular action (compulsion) to make the obsession stop

39

body dysmorphic disorder

a person is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by one or more imagined or minor defects in their physical features

40

hoarding disorder

characterized by excessive acquisition of large quantities of objects and an unwillingness or inability to discard them

41

trichotillomania

characterized by the compulsive urge to pull out one's hair, leading to noticeable hair loss and balding, distress, and social or functional impairment

42

excoriation

an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pick at one's own skin, often to the extent that damage is caused

43

schizophrenia

a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and a failure to recognize what is real

44

positive symptoms of schiz.

presence of inappropriate behaviors
delusions
hallucinations
excessive/purposeless movement
word salad

45

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur

46

hallucinations

sensory experiences without sensory stimulation

47

word salad

confused and often repetitious language

48

negative symptoms of schiz.

absence of appropriate behaviors
flat affect
catatonia
loss of interest in everyday activities / lack of pleasure
feeling out of touch with people, family, and friends

49

flat affect

apathetic state involving lack of emotion

50

catatonia

motionless for hours

51

conversion disorder

characterized by suffering of neurological symptoms without definable cause

52

illness anxiety disorder

an individual excessively worries about a serious illness based on little or no evidence to substantiate the worry

53

reactive attachment disorder

characterized by persistent failure to initiate or respond to most social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way

54

post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

characterized by disturbing, recurring flashbacks after exposure to a traumatic event

55

post traumatic growth

those who recover from traumatic events typically experience increased life satisfaction

56

adjustment disorder

characterized by being unable to adjust or cope with a particular stressor, such as a major life event

57

antisocial personality disorder

characterized by pervasive pattern of manipulation and a disregard for the rights of others

58

dependent personality disorder

characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people

59

histrionic personality disorder

characterized by pattern of excessive attention-seeking, including a need for approval

60

avoidant personality disorder

characterized by pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and avoidance of social interaction

61

narcissistic personality disorder

characterized by extreme ego-centrism and self importance and excessive preoccupation with power, prestige, and vanity

62

borderline personality disorder

characterized by impulsivity and extreme instability in emotions, relationships, and self-image