Research Methods Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (38):
1

Surveys

Description: asks people to report their behavior or opinions
Strengths: Cheap to administer, gather info about people quickly
Weaknesses: Wording effects, Sampling Error (doesn't represent entire pop), low response rate, people lie

2

Case Studies

Description: An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hopes of revealing universal principles
Strengths: one person can tell a lot about people
Weaknesses: one case may be misleading

3

Naturalistic Observation

Description: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations
Strengths: see authentic behavior
Weaknesses: can't interfere at all

4

Correlation Studies

Description: Examines relationships between two variables
Correlations range from -1 to 1
Strengths: can show a relationship between two variables
Weaknesses: Correlation does not prove causation, third variable problem

5

Positive Correlation

as one goes up, so does the other (absolute value determines strength)

6

Negative Correlation

as one goes up, other goes down (absolute value determines strength)

7

Theory

an explanation that integrates and organizes and predicts behaviors or events

8

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, educated guess often an if/then statement that expresses a relationship b/w two variables

9

Research

conduct a study (experiment) to either confirm or disprove our hypothesis

10

Independent variable

the factor that researchers manipulate so they can determine its effect. If there are multiple independent variables, they are known as levels of the independent variable

11

dependent variable

the factor that changes in response to the independent variable

12

Experimental group

the group that receives the treatment

13

Control group

the group that does not receive the treatment

14

Confounding Variable

other variables that could possibly affect the experiment (we want to minimize these)

15

3 keys to an experiment

1. Manipulate the independent variable
2. Measure the dependent variable
3. Control for extraneous variables

16

Basic Ethical Principles

1. Must not harm participants
2. must not break any laws
3. must obtain informed consent before and debrief participants after
4. deception is okay as long as participants are informed of the deception after the experiment is concluded
5. must keep individual results confidential
6. Harm to animals is permissible if it is for the greater human good, there is no alternative, and the benefits outweigh harm

17

Population

the entire target that you want to learn about

18

Sample

those from the population that you select to be part of your study
- should be as representative of the population as possible

19

Random Sampling

everyone from the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the study

20

Random Assignment

once chosen, those in the sample have an equal chance of being assigned to experimental or control group

21

Hawthorne Effect

just being in an experiment can cause change

22

Placebo Effect

expectations affect performance

23

Placebo

a substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person's belief in it

24

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

a belief that results in behavior that makes the belief come true

25

Single-Blind Study

participants do not know whether they're in the experimental or control group

26

Double-Blind Study

both subjects and experimenters are kept uninformed

27

Operational Definitions

precise definitions that show how variables will be measured (love, aggression)

28

Reliability

replicate the experiment and get the same results

29

Statistical Significance

the difference is so great that it could not be due to chance alone; the more people the lower the stat sig

30

Mode

the most frequently occurring score in a distribution

31

Mean

the arithmetic average of scores in a distribution

32

Median

the middle score in a rank-ordered distribution

33

Range

difference between the lowest and highest scores in a distribution

34

Standard Deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
**the higher the variance or SD, the more spread out the distribution is

35

Normal Distribution

mean, median, and mode are all the same

36

Positively Skewed distribution

one high score outlier with lots of low scores

37

Negatively Skewed distribution

one low score outlier with lots of high scores

38

Inferential Statistics

can the findings (results) from our study be generalized (inferred) to the entire population? To find out, we need to conduct tests to see if our data is actually meaningful or if our results could have been due to chance alone