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AP Psychology > Developement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developement Deck (78):
1

Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes; get 23 from each parent

2

Identical Twins

twins who develop from a single zygote (fertilized egg) that splits in two, creating two genetic replicas

3

Fraternal Twins

twins who develop from two zygotes; genetically no closer than brothers and sisters

4

Dominant Genes

always are expressed, even if paired with a recessive gene

5

Recessive Genes

only express if paired with another recessive gene

6

Genotype

the actual DNA of the organism

7

Phenotype

the outward, physical manifestation of the genotype

8

Behavior Genetics

the study of the power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

9

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature: the way you were born
Nurture: the way you were raised

10

Heritability

proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
**Environment has an impact too

11

Natural Selection

inherited trait variations contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

12

Cross-Sectional Studies

participants of different ages studied at the same time

13

Longitudinal Studies

one group of people studied over a period of time

14

Placenta

first pre-natal influence

15

Touch

results in faster weight gain and neurological development for both babies and animals

16

Parent influence

education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, ways of interacting with authority figures

17

Peer influence

learning cooperation, finding popularity, styles of peer interaction, drug behavior

18

Norms

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

19

Social learning theory

theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

20

Gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males and females

21

gender identity

one's sense of being male or female

22

gender-typing

the acquisition of a tradition masculine or feminine role (teaching your kids)

23

Trust vs. Mistrust

Infancy (0-1 year)
if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust

24

Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

Toddler hood (1-2 years)
Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

25

Initiative vs guilt

Preschooler (3-6 years)
preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent

26

Industry vs. inferiority

Elementary School (6 years to puberty)
children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

27

Identity vs. Role confusion

Adolescence (teen years into 20s)
teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are

28

Intimacy vs. Isolation

young adulthood (20s to early 40s)
young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

29

Generativity vs. stagnation

middle adulthood (40s-60s)
in middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose

30

Integrity vs. Despair

Late adulthood (late 60s and up)
reflecting on his or her life, and older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure

31

conception

the sperm attempts to penetrate the egg's surface

32

zygote

fertilized egg, first 2 weeks of development
outer part becomes placenta

33

embryo

after two weeks, lasts about 6 weeks, heart begins to beat and organs begin to develop

34

fetus

nine weeks and onward, by six months can survive outside womb, can recognize sounds and responds to light

35

teratogens

chemical agents that can harm the prenatal environment

36

habituation

decreasing responsiveness to repeated stimuli (how quickly they get bored)

37

maturation

biological growth pattern

38

infant memory

underdeveloped hippo campus and cortex areas result in lack of long term memory before ages 3-4

39

gross motor skills

involve large muscle activities, such as walking

40

fine motor skillls

involve more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity

41

rooting reflex

baby turns to search and suck when cheek touched

42

moro reflex

startle response

43

babinski reflex

toes fan out when sole of foot touched

44

sensorimotor

(0-2) object permanence and baby mathematics

45

preoperational

(2-7) egocentric and pretend play

46

concrete operational

(7-11) conservation: volume and mass remain the same

47

formal operational

(12 and up) abstract reasoning: thinking about your thinking

48

Schema

mental ways we interpret/organize the world around us

49

assimilation

incorporating new experiences into existing schemas

50

accomodation

changing an existing schema to adapt to new information

51

imprinting

an automatic attachment formed very early in life

52

Harlow's monkey experiment

monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother (need touch for attachment)

53

critical periods

the optimal period when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

54

Types of attachment

secure, avoidant(no emotion), anxious/ambivalent(always cry)

55

stranger anxiety

fear of strangers that infants commonly display, begins around 8 months

56

separation anxiety

distress the infant shows when object of attachment leaves, begins around 14 months

57

authoritarian parenting

parents impose rules and expect obedience

58

permissive parenting

submit to children's desires, make few demands, use little punishment

59

authoritative parenting

both demanding and responsive

60

preconventional

obey to avoid punishment or attain rewards
key point: self-interest

61

conventional

uphold laws and rules because they are the laws and rules
key point: social-approval

62

postconventional

person follows what they personally perceive as ethical principles
key point: ethical principles

63

physical changes of old age

muscular strength, reactionary time, sensory keeness, and cardiac output all crest in the mid twenties

64

decline in fertility

chances of pregnancy for a 35-39 year old are half that of a 19-26 year old

65

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation
occurs approximately around age 50

66

aging senses

our senses get worse with age, accident rates increase with age

67

good news about health

accumulation of antibodies result in less short term ailments (flu or cold)

68

Bad news about health

immune system weakens, making the body more susceptible to ailments such as pneumonia and cancer

69

Memory atrophy

by age 80 brain weight has decreased by 5%
overly blunt questions

70

Dementia

mental erosion of the brain (substantial loss of brain cells)

71

Alzheimer's Disease

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder
deterioration of brain cells that produce acetylcholine

72

crystallized intelligence

accumulated knowledge increases with age

73

fluid intelligence

ability to solve problems quickly and think abstractly
peaks in 20s and decreases over time

74

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events

75

stages of death and grieving

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

76

primary sex characteristics

body structures that make reproduction possible

77

secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive sex characteristics

78

landmarks for puberty

girls: menarche
boys: first ejaculation