Cognition and Learning Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Cognition and Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition and Learning Deck (79):
1

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

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visual encoding

the encoding of picture images

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acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound

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semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning
**retains the most information

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hippocampus

processes explicit memory for storage

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effortful processing

encoding that requires conscious effort and attention
ie riding a bike

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automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental info and of well learned info
ie where you ate yesterday

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rehearsal

conscious repetition of info

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mnemonics

memory aids, usually used as organizational devices

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chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units

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spacing effect

information is better retained when learned over a period of time

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serial position effect

our tendency to best recall the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items on a list

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storage

the retention of encoded info over time

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sensory memory

the immediate, initial recording of sensory info in the memory system

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iconic memory

momentary visual sensory memory; lasts no more than a few tenths of a second

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echoic memory

momentary auditory memory; sounds and words can be recalled within 3-4 seconds

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short term memory (working)

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotten
lasts about 20 sec can contain 5-9 items
important info goes to long term

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long term memory

the relatively permanent and unlimited storehouse of memory system

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explicit (aka Declarative) memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

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semantic memory

facts and general knowledge

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episodic memory

personally experienced events

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prospective memory

remembering to do something in the future

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implicit (aka procedural) memory

retention without conscious recollection (such as skills)
cerebellum plays a role

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flashbulb memories

a clear memory of an emotionally significant event
hormones released during emotional moments enhance the memory creation

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storing memories

memories are stored all throughout the brain

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long term potentiation (LTP)

increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; the neural basis for learning and memory

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retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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priming

the activation of particular associations in memory
ie "when i hear ____, I think of ____"
Mnemonic devices

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context effects

we remember better when we are in the same context as when we originally learned the info

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Deja Vu

probably just cues from the current situation triggering retrieval of an earlier experience

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mood congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's mood

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recall

a measure of memory in which a person must retrieve info learned earlier without reference
ie list presidents
essay, short answer, fill in the blank

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recognition

a measure of memory in which one need only identify items previously learned
ie list the presidents while using a picture
multiple choice

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failure to encode

sometimes we fail to encode because there is just too much information and we don't notice small details

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hermann ebbinghous study / curve of forgetting

learned lists of nonsense syllables (dak, bax, etc.) then measured how much he remembered from 20 mins to 30 days later
(lose a lot of info right away and then there's a leveling off)

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amnesia

the loss of memory

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anterograde amnesia

inability to create memories

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retrograde amnesia

inability to recall memories

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proactive interference

disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info
PeDaL: Prior Disrupts Later
ie calling your new gf by your old gf's name

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retroactive interference

disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info
ie you call your old gf by your new gf's name

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repression

a basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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imagination effect

repeatedly imagining non existent actions and events can create false memories

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polygraphs

compare physiological responses between "control" and "relevant" questions

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source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

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phoneme

the smallest distinctive sound units
we have trouble pronouncing phonemes of other langages

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morpheme

the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

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grammar

a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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(deep) semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language

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(surface) syntax

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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how many words does the average high school graduate know?

60,000

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babbling stage

first occurs around 4 months of age
the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
resembles household language around 10 months

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one-word stage

first occurs around 12 months of age
child mostly speaks in single words

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two-word stage

first occurs around 24 months of age
child mostly speaks in two word statements
after this, child will rapidly begin formulating sentences

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Noam Chomsky's Theory of Inborn Universal Grammar

believed humans had a "language acquisition device" (biological predisposition) to develop language (NATURE)

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B.F. Skinner's Theory of Operant Learning

believed humans learn language through operant conditioning and social learning (NURTURE)

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Whorf's Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (aka linguistic determinism)

the idea that language determines the way we think

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cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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metacognition

the ability to analyze your own thoughts
includes the way we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgments

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concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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prototypes

a mental image or best example of a concept

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algorithms

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

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heuristics

a rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently (speedier but error prone)

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insight

a sudden and novel realization of the solution to the problem

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artificial intelligence

the science of designing computer systems to perform operations that mimic human thinking

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what can computers do better than humans?

manipulate huge amounts of data, retrieve detailed information from memory, make decisions using specified rules

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what are computers worse at than humans?

computers can not fear, desire, have beliefs or other subjective mental states

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Animal cognition

animals think, are culturally diverse, and exhibit language
smartest animals are the equivalent to 2 year old humans

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hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information the confirms one's perception

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fixation

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective

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mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions

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framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

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belief perseverance

clinging to initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct

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barnum effect

the tendency for people to believe very vague or general characterizations of themselves

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representativeness heuristic

a rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

79

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory