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AP Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (41):
1

classical conditioning

learning through association, a tendency to connect events that occur together in time and space

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Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning on accident by measuring how much dogs would salivate

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unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response

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unconditioned response

the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus

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neutral stimulus

an unrelated stimulus that will become the conditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus

an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

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conditioned response

the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus

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acquistion

-the initial stage of learning
-this is when the organism first connects the events together in its mind
-when the organism connects the behavior with the stimulus
-CS announces US

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extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response
occurs when you stop pairing the US & NS/CS and time passes
when you stop pairing the stimulus with the behavior

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spontaneous recovery

-the reappearance of a conditioned response after a rest period following an extinction
-you have to connect the CS & NS again for it to reappear
-after a rest period, you pair the stimulus with the behavior again

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generalization

-the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses
-behavior is affected by a stimulus similar to the original

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discrimination

-the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
-behavior is not affected by a stimulus similar to the original

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higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus

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biological predispositions of classical conditioning

an animal's capacity for its conditioning is restrained by its biology

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John garcia

researched the effect of radiation on rats

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operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment

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Edward Thorndike's Law of effect

behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behavior that is followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped

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positive reinforcement

adding a stimulus to increase behavior

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negative reinforcement

removing a stimulus to increase behavior

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positive punishment

adding a stimulus to decrease behavior

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negative punishment

removing a stimulus to decrease behavior

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limitations of punishment

-punishment often produces temporary suppression
-punishment produces undesirable emotional side effects
-children who are physically punished often model or imitate punishment
-punishment never teaches a new behavior

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skinner box

a chamber containing a bar that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer

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shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximation of a complex desired goal
positively reinforce each small step along the way

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primary reinforcers

innately reinforcing stimuli, such as those that satisfy biological needs

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conditioned reinforcers

are those that gain their reinforcing power through association with a primary reinforcer

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment

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over justification effect

the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already already likes to do

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token economy

people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats

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premack principle

more probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors

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continuous reinforcement

reinforce the behavior every time it occurs
teaches the behavior extremely quickly
once reinforcement stops it extinguishes quickly

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partial reinforcement

reinforce the behavior sometimes it occurs
teaches the behavior slowly but behavior sticks

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fixed ratio

a schedule that reinforces after a specific number of responses

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variable ratio

a schedule that reinforces a behavior only after an unpredictable number of responses

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fixed interval

a schedule that reinforces a behavior only after specified time has elapsed

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variable interval

a schedule that reinforces behavior at unpredictable time intervals

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observational learning

learning by observing and imitating the behaviors of others through modeling

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prosocial behavior

non-violent resistance as a means of peaceful demonstration, Sesame street teaches kids behavior and how to learn

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antisocial behavior

Colombine shooters inspired by "Doom" and other violent video games

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Albert Bandura's Bobo Doll Study

kids watched video of someone with bobo doll (nice/cruel)
kids were then placed in a room with the bobo doll where the majority mimicked the behavior they saw