Testing and Individual Differences Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Testing and Individual Differences > Flashcards

Flashcards in Testing and Individual Differences Deck (39):
1

Sir Francis Galton

-Founded the modern day eugenics movement
-Wanted to apply his cousin Charles Darwin's idea of natural selection to encourage only intelligent and fit

2

Alfred Binet

-Devised a concept called mental age which describes a student's equivalent corresponding intellectual age

3

William Stern

-Derived the term "intelligence quotient", abbreviated as IQ
-Used Binet's mental age term into his formula
IQ=(mental age/chronological age)(100)
-No longer used

4

Average IQ

100

5

Lewis Terman

-Created the first widespread intelligence test know as the "Standford-Binet" intelligence test
-Extended testing range from children to adults

6

Intelligence Quotient

IQ

7

Mental Age

Describes a student's equivalent corresponding intellectual age

8

Chronological Age

Your actual age

9

Factor Analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items
ie: different scores on different sections of a test

10

Savant Syndrome

Individuals with mental disabilities but who excel in one specific area
ie: Rain man

11

General Intelligence (g)

people can either be labeled as "smart" or "not smart" and there's no specific areas of strength or weakness

12

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

1. Visual/Spatial
2. Verbal/Linguistic
3. Logical Mathematical
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic
5. Musical/Rythmic
6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalistic
9. Existential

13

Sternberg's Three Aspects

Analytical, practical, creative

14

Analytical Intelligence

academic problem solving

15

Practical Intelligence

"common sense" / "street smarts intelligence related to everyday tasks

16

Creative Intelligence

ability to generate novel ideas

17

Convergent thinking

one solution to a problem

18

Divergent thinking

multiple solutions to a problem

19

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

20

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results over time

21

bell curve

normal distribution

22

test-retest

if an individual takes the exam on one day and takes the same exam again later, the scores should be similar

23

split halves

scores on the first half of the exam should be similar to the second half, odd number question scores should be similar to even numbered question scores

24

alternate forms

if a teacher gives out multiple forms of an exam with different questions, the overall scores should be similar for each form

25

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to measure or predict

26

achievement test

designed to assess what a person has learned

27

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the appropriate criterion

28

aptitude test

designed to predict a person's future performance

29

predictive validity

the extent to which a test predicts the appropriate behavior
ie: SAT, career tests

30

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

the most widely used test today

31

verbal (WAIS)

part of the WAIS that contains general info, similarities, arithmetic reasoning, vocab, comprehension, and digit span

32

performance (WAIS)

part of the WAIS that contains picture comprehension, picture arrangement, block design, object assembly, and digit-symbol substitution

33

Intellectually disabled

intelligence score below 70
down syndrome

34

intellectually gifted

IQs above 140; considered geniuses
Mensa: top 2% IQ scores in the world

35

schooling effect

IQ scores increase throughout the school year and drop over the summer months when students are not in school

36

tracking

placing student in intelligence dependent classes such us remedial or advanced courses that tend to continue across different school years

37

stereotype threat

a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotypes

38

Racial and gender differences in intelligence

cultural bias: biased IQ tests
socioeconomic differences: exposure to school and amount of schooling

39

Flynn effect

scores on the WAIS have been increasing about 3 points per decade