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Flashcards in *Bk 29- Building Construction Deck (105):
0

Conventional construction utilizes structural members that depend on _______ for strength.

Size

1

Lightweight truss construction- Strength is obtained from multiple members that are in ___________ and ___________

Compression and tension

2

A single lightweight truss structural member can span how far?

70 feet

3

The amount of time that a structure can be considered structurally strong is dependent on what 3 factors?

1. Type of construction

2. How long fire has been burning

3. Fire intensity

4

What are the six types of roof styles explained in book 29?

1. Gable
2. Flat
3. Hip
4. Bridge truss
5. Arch truss
6. Sawtooth

5

Gable roofs (conventional)- size and span of rafters? Include steep pitch roof.

1. 2x6" or larger. 16" to 24" on center

2. Steep pitch- 2x6". 36" on center

6

What gauge is the most common metal gusset plate?

How long are the prongs?

1. 18 gauge

2. 3/8"

7

Lightweight trusses- Eighteen-gauge "roof truss clips" may be found nailed to the bottom chord of every how many trusses?

3-5 trusses

8

Common "on-center" spacing for truss rafters is?

24" on center

9

Can interior partition walls support the truss at any point along the bottom chord?

No

10

What are the strong areas of a conventional gable roof?

Ridge and bearing wall

11

Newer roofs use ______inch or ______ inch plywood as a decking instead of 1 x 4 inch or 1 x 6 inch space sheathing

3/8 or 1/2"

12

What are the dimensions of decking used in space, straight and diagonal sheathing?

1x4" or 1x6"

13

What type of rafter is utilized where two roof lines join together?

Valley rafter

14

Gable (conventional)- size of ridge board (if present)

1x6" or 2x6"

15

Hip (conventional)- size and span of rafters? Include steep pitch.

Size of ridge board?

1. 2x6" or larger. 16, 24" on center
Steep pitch- "Rough cut" 2x3 or 2x4". 36" on center

2. Ridge- 2x6" or larger

16

What are the strong areas of a conventional hip roof?

Ridge board, valley rafters, hip rafters, and the area where rafters cross the outside walls

17

Bridge truss roof- Wooden truss members are what size?

2x12" lumber

18

In truss construction, the top chord is in _______ and the bottom chord is in _______

Compression or tension?

1. Compression

2. Tension

19

Bridge truss- What is the rafter size? What type and size sheathing will you find?

Rafters- 2x6" or larger

Sheathing- 1x6" diagonal or straight

20

Per the earthquake ordinance, what cutoff year would you find straight sheathing?

What about diagonal sheathing?

1. Pre 1933

2. Post 1933

21

Bowstring arch truss- size of arch members?

Rafter size?

Sheathing size?

1. 2x12" or 2x14"

2. 2x6" or larger

3. 1x6" straight or diagonal (1933)

22

Lamella arch roof- size of wood framing?

Size of sheathing?

1. 2x12"

2. 1x6" sheathing

23

Lamella arch roof- total roof collapse may occur if fire removes more than ______% of the roof structure.

20%

24

Which arch truss roof uses metal tie rods to offer lateral support for the walls of the building?

Tied truss arch

25

Tied truss arch- size of tie rods?

5/8" diameter

26

Tied truss arch- size of top chord members?

Rafter size?

Sheathing size?

1. 2x12" or larger

2. 2x10" or larger

3. 1x6" straight or diagonal (1933)

27

What is the primary hazard of a tied truss arch roof?

Failure of metal tie rods and turnbuckles

28

Sawtooth roof- size of rafters?

Size of sheathing?

1. 2x8" or larger

2. 1x6" or 1/2 plywood

29

Conventional flat roof- size of rafters?

Size of sheathing?

1. 2x6" or larger

2. 1x6" or plywood (newer)

30

What are the four types of construction for a lightweight flat roof?

Wooden I-beam
Open web
Metal gusset plate
Panelized

31

What thickness is plywood found in on a newer conventional flat roof?

3/8" to 5/8"

32

Wooden I-beam- size of chords?

Material and size of stem?

1. 2x4" or 2x3"

2. 3/8" plywood or OSB

33

What is the term for when the joints of the plywood on a roof are staggered (every 4') similar to a masonry wall?

Diaphragm nailing

34

What is the common on-center spacing for wooden I-beam, metal gusset plate, open web trusses?

24"

35

How far are nailing blocks spaced apart?

4' apart

36

The steel tube web members in an open web truss roof are prefabricated to what size?

1-2"

37

Open web roof- span of trusses?

70' possible

38

What gauge are metal gusset with prongs that produce 3/8" penetration?

18 gauge

39

Metal gusset plate roof- up to what span in possible?

80 feet

40

Metal gusset plate roof- commercial building plywood thickness?

Plywood thickness for dwellings?

1. 1/2"

2. 3/8" or 1/2"

41

What are the four major components that make up a panelized roof?

1. Beams
2. Purlins
3. Rafters
4. Plywood

42

What is the thickness of plywood used on panelized roofs?

1/2"

43

Panelized roof- what are the sizes and spans of the beams?

Size: 6x36"

Span: 12-40ft

44

On a panelized roof, beams may be bolted together to provide lengths well in excess of how many feet?

100ft

45

On a panelized roof, what are the sizes and spacing of purlins?

Size: 4x12"

Span: 8ft

46

On a panelized roof, what are the sizes and spacing of joists?

Size: 2x4"

Spacing: 24"

47

The 3 strengths (walkable) of a panelized roof are?

1. Beams
2. Purlins
3. Perimeter of building

48

One of the hazards listed on a panelized roof are the beam span supports of hollow steel pipe. What size are these supports?

4"

49

In an Open Web Bar Joist roof, the top and bottom chords are usually made from steel of what thickness?

1/8"

50

In an Open Web Bar Joist roof, web supports are a solid steel bar of what thickness?

5/8"

51

In an Open Web Bar Joist roof, buildings may have bar-joists used as girders spaced up to how many feet?

45 ft

52

In an Open Web Bar Joist roof, how many feet apart are the joists to accept corrugated metal decking?

8'

53

According to book 29, steel begins to lose its strength at how many degrees F?

1000 degrees F

54

On a lightweight concrete roof, an air-entrained mixture of sand, cement and, occasionally, pea gravel is pumped on top of the corrugated metal decking and wire mesh to a thickness of how many inches?

3-4"

55

What are the dimensions of the wire mesh used on a lightweight concrete roof?

4x4" and 6x6"

56

Lightweight concrete roofs are used on buildings when what is desired?

Additional insulative properties (airports, freeways, ect)

57

What type of roof should a rotary saw be used to cut ventilation holes?

What two types of blades should be used?

1. Lightweight concrete roofs

2. Diamond or carbide tip

58

Buildings that are primarily constructed of metal can be categorized into what two construction types?

1. Corrugated
2. Metal beam

59

When exposed to sufficient heat, metal beams can expand how many inches per 100'

9"

60

Concrete tilt up buildings can be up to how many stories in height?

5

61

What are the two types of masonry construction types?

Brick and block

62

Masonry buildings constructed prior to 1933 have brick exterior walls how thick?

13"

63

Masonry buildings constructed prior to 1933 can have parapets how high above the roofline?

How high can the parapet be if used as a facade?

1. 3 ft

2. 5 ft or more

64

Masonry buildings constructed prior to 1933 have what type of sheathing?

Straight sheathing

65

Masonry buildings that were built after 1933 are required to have exterior walls how thick?

9"

66

Masonry buildings that were built after 1933 have what type of roof sheathing?

Diagonal sheathing

67

What year required a concrete bond-beam cap to be laid on top of lowered parapet walls along public ways and exits on pre-1933 buildings

How thick was the bond beam?

1. 1959

2. 4-6"

68

What year required pre-1933 parapet walls not be higher than 16 inches including the bond-beam cap?

1959

69

A retrofitted pre-1933 brick building should have parapet walls no higher than how many inches including the bond-beam cap?

16"

70

What year caused rafter tie plates to be implemented on pre-1933 brick buildings?

1959

71

In the 1959 retrofit for pre-1933 brick buildings, exterior walls were drilled at the roof rafter level and a steel anchor bar/rod was installed every how many feet and attached to the existing roof rafter?

4 ft

72

What year caused the modification on pre-1933 brick buildings to render the "fire cut" on roof rafters ineffective?

1959

73

After what year caused the anchoring of walls to floor and roof systems on pre-1933 brick buildings?

1971

74

After what year caused the strengthening of roof construction on pre-1933 brick buildings? (Plywood, metal straps, ect)

1971

75

Pre-1933 brick building: deeply recessed window frames expose how many inches of brick to the exterior?

8"

76

After how many rows of brick is laid before one row is laid on end to create a "kings row"?

4-7

77

Unreinforced masonry buildings may have metal straps that run the width of the roof. The straps are usually found how far back from the front and rear walls?

1/3 the distance of the building

78

What are the primary hazards with unreinforced masonry construction?

Wall, roof, and floor collapse

79

Unreinforced masonry- Exterior walls may suddenly collapse (during
fire conditions) how far outward from the building?

At least equal to the height of the wall

80

Unreinforced masonry- On arch typed roofs, what sides of a building are a primary danger for collapse?

Front and rear

81

Unreinforced masonry- On arch typed roofs, where are the safe areas when dealing with wall collapse?

1. Corners of building

2. Distance equal to at least the height of the wall

82

Unreinforced masonry- in addition to metal straps running the width of the building, they can also be found how far from the walls?

3-4 feet

83

Convention or lightweight roof/floors for concrete block construction?

Lightweight

84

An identifiable style of construction on the exterior of a building that will conceal and spread the travel (extension) of fire is known as?

Facade

85

What is often utilized to conceal equipment and machinery on flat roofs?

Facade

86

What four things should be considered when confronted by facade?

1. Overhang
2. Facade height
3. Supported or unsupported
4. Height from roof

87

Unless proven otherwise, expect any facade to be constructed without __________ and open to the _________ of the building

1. Fire stops

2. Attic

88

If a facade is exposed to fire, expect the facade to collapse outward how far?

At least the distance of the facade overhang

89

What 5 things on a building can be used to help identify where a roof line is located?

1. Scuppers
2. Attic vents
3. Equipment seen on roof
4. Windows
5. Rafter tie plates

90

Balloon construction can be utilized in buildings of up to how many stories?

4

91

In bungalow construction, "old type" of lightweight construction utilized what size members for rafters and ridge board?

1. 2x3 or 2x4" rafters

2. 1x6" ridge board (optional)

92

A building which does not utilize horizontal fire blocking in the walls and plates between multiple floors separating the attic from open vertical runs in the walls is known as what type of construction?

Balloon construction

93

____________ construction utilizes fire blocking in the wall (studs which eliminate open vertical pathways to the attic)

Platform

94

Wires which are suspended on ceramic insulators and pass through ceramic tubes when it is necessary to run the wires through studs or plates are known as what type of wiring?

Knob and tube

95

During a fire in an older building that uses knob and tube wiring, emphasis must be placed on eliminating what?

Electrical service

96

What three general time periods that can be used to classify building construction?

1. Pre-1933

2. 1933 to late 1950

3. 1950's to present

97

To ensure effective and safe fireground operations, personnel must address what four factors when dealing with lightweight construction?

1. Identification
2. Communication
3. Time
4. Operations

98

A working knowledge of building construction provides a safe foundation for effective, timely, and safe fire ground operations in what four areas?

•Structure integrity
•Ladder placement
•Forcible entry / search and rescue
•Ventilation feasibility

99

When a personal size up (analyzing the situation) is applied to a structure fire, one of the first considerations should be the ____ and _____ of the building

Type and Construction

100

When conducting a BUILDING size-up, "undress" the building in your mind. Our size-up will focus on what four areas?

•construction style
•roof styles
•construction methods (frame/stucco, masonry, etc.)
•age of building

101

Construction members for mill/timber may be ____ inch by ____ inch

8x8

102

After what year required new masonry construction to have exterior walls at least nine inches thick and utilize cement and reinforced with steel rebar?

Post 1933

103

After what year required new masonry construction have all joists and rafters be anchored to exterior walls? This is usually accomplished by bolting a "ledger board" to a masonry wall and attaching the joist and rafters to the ledger board with metal hangers.

Post 1933

104

In present day, unreinforced masonry buildings will share all or a portion of what trademarks?

-rafter tie plates
-bond beam on parapet / over windows / between floors
-deeply recessed windows
-windows with arched or straight lintels
-The lime mortar between the bricks is white, porous, sandy, and may be easily rubbed away
-kings row

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