Flashcards in *TB 90- Fire Burns Deck (26):
Steam can cause full thickness burns to unprotected skin with less than ___ seconds exposure.
Tests indicate that exposure to temperatures of only ___ to ___°F will cause extreme pain and severe, full thickness burns to all unprotected skin.
280 to 320
Second Degree Burns can occur within one second of exposure to ___ degrees.
Fire burns: True or False?
Steam burns develop faster and are more severe than dry heat burns at the same temperature
True, this is due to latent heat transfer.
A Firefighter caught in a flashover, just ___ feet inside a room, will be exposed to temperatures of 1,000 to 1,500°F, and direct flame impingement for at least 2 seconds
A ____ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree fahrenheit.
Heat is transferred in what three different ways?
_____ is the transmission, spread, or distribution of heat through the motion of a heated fluid
_____ is when heat energy is transmitted similar to light waves
_____ is the transfer of heat through matter without any visible motion of that matter.
What are three stages in the development of an interior fire?
•fully developed stage
_____ is a sudden sporadic generation of flame mixed with smoke at the upper ceiling level just before flashover occurs. It is the last warning for Firefighters to withdraw from the area, if charged lines are not in place and operating effectively
Flashover warning signs may not be apparent in buildings with large unenclosed floor or attic spaces and ceilings ___ to ___feet above the floor or joist level.
12 to 20 ft
The following are warning signs of a ______
•Sickly or intermittent flame due to a reduced oxygen level.
•Smoke being drawn past you into the fire area of the structure.
•Heavy smoke swirling with great force.
•Flickering flames in the smoke above you as heavier combustion products suspended in the superheated atmosphere try to ignite.
In order for backdraft to occur, oxygen content must fall to between ___% and ___%.
11 to 15%
The following are all warning signs before a _____
•Smoke issuing out of any available structural openings, door jambs, window frames, roof, and attic vents, wall cracks, etc.
•Smoke igniting when it rolls into the outside air.
•Heavy, hot smoke is visible but no fire can be seen or heard.
•Structure appears to be breathing or puffing smoke.
•Windows darkened due to long exposure to heat, may look like mirrored glass from the outside.
•Condensation forming on windows.
•Windows pulsating or rattling from internal pressure.
•Large plate glass windows may bulge from heat and internal pressure.
The following are all warning signs of a possible _____
•A fire burning within a room or area that is producing a buildup of heated smoke at the upperlevels of the structure.
•Smoke that is increasing in heat and density.
•A rapid banking down of heated smoke.
•Fire of significant intensity exposing contents and surrounding areas to radiant and/or convective heat.
•Roll over occurring. Flame visible in the smoke rolling out the tops of open doors or windows, and/or flames rolling in the upper ceiling level inside the fire area.
What are the four construction features that present the greatest danger to Firefighters from collapse?
l. Any type of truss construction
2. Unreinforced masonry construction
3. Any cantilever construction
4. Unprotected steel construction
In general, provide a minimum of two ladders to every structure and one additional ladder for every ___ member team on the roof.
______ heat is the quantity of heat absorbed by a substance when passing between phases
Solid to liquid is the latent heat of fusion. Liquid to vapor is the latent heat of vaporization.
Which heat transfer method is responsible for the majority of fire and smoke spread within structures?
The primary consideration relative to conductive heat transfer is ______
_____ usually occurs after flashover and is defined as rapid flame spread over one or more surfaces during a fire. It is caused by the sudden ignition of combustible vapors that are produced from a heated surface
Before a backdraft occurs, Explosive products of combustion are ______ to ______ degrees in the structure.
1000 to 1800°F
The primary difference between flashover and backdraft is the amount of _____ present