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Flashcards in Bovine Respiratory Deck (56)
1

Which bacteria are commonly found as secondary invaders after a primary pathogen insults the respiratory tract?

Mannheimia haemolytica
Pasteurella multocida

2

Name 2 other non-viral pathogens implicated in respiratory disease in cattle and comment on whether they commonly occur as other clinical presentations

Histophilus somni (also seen as meningoencephalitis)
Mycoplasma spp (esp M.bovis); also implicated in aggressive mastitis, metritis, septic arthritis, otitis media

3

What happens to a calf <4 weeks of age, when the ambient temperature drops below its LCT?

Calf uses energy shivering to maintain body temp -> fails to gain weight, may lose weight
Mucociliary function may be affected -> reduction in defences of the respiratory tract

4

Which of these NSAIDs is available in a form with a zero milk withhold period?
Ketoprofen (Curacef)
Carprofen (Rimadyl)
Meloxicam (Metacam)
Flunixin (Resflor)

Ketoprofen
Carprofen

5

What differentials would you consider in a cow in a group of beef cattle kept at grass which is breathing heavily and showing profuse hypersalivation?

'Fog fever' (reaction to fructans in grass)
Acute pasteurellosis (check for recent stress)
Oesophageal obstruction
Heat stroke (time of year?)

6

How is the lungworm vaccine administered and when?
What does it comprise?

'Huskvac'
Vaccinate healthy animals of 8 weeks of age and older. Can be used during pregnancy. Give 25ml orally.
First vac: 2 doses 4 weeks apart, then a single vaccine prior to each season's turnout
Comprised of virus antigens

7

Where are the lungfields on a cow?

Triceps cranially
Attachment of the ribs to the vertebral column dorsally
An imaginary line joining the point of the elbow to the 11th intercostal space
Small lung volume for body size

8

Give some design issues with the bovine lung

Small lung volume for body size
Large dead space
No collateral ventilation of alveoli
Alveoli are easy to damage and difficult to recover
Poorly developed fibrinolytic systems
Early and substantial vasoconstriction of arteries and arterioles

9

Give some problems with large dead space in the bovine lung

Limited respiratory reserve
Reduced phagocytic activity in the dead space
Decreased clearance of bacteria

10

Give some problems with no collateral ventilation of alveoli

No 'pores of Kohn' or bronchiole anastomoses, ie if part of lung is compromised, air can't move to other parts of lung to aerate it

11

Give some problems with early vasoconstriction of arteries and arterioles

Early vasoconstriction in pneumonia is intended to maintain arterial BP, but also cuts off blood supply to the pneumonic lung

12

Give some problems with cows having a poorly developed fibrinolytic system

Persistent fibrinous exudate
Lung scarring

13

What happens to colostrum if left at room temperature?

Bacterial growth

14

Which part of the respiratory tract do parainfluenza virus and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) affect?

LRT

15

Which part of the respiratory tract does IBR (bovine herpes virus) affect?

URT

16

Give some clinical signs of IBR (bovine herpes virus)

Pyrexia
Milk drop
Ocular/nasal discharge
Conjunctival hyperaemia
Coughing

17

Describe the 3 major types of bovine herpes virus

BHV-1: respiratory and repro systems (abortion)
BHV-2: IPV (infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis) (no abortion)
BHV-4: endometritis

18

Give some clinical signs of mycoplasma bovis

Conjunctivitis
Pneumonia
Septic arthritis
Otitis media (head tilt if chronic)
Mastitis

19

How is Mycoplasma bovis transmitted?

Direct cow-cow contact, metritis to udder, resp aerosols, fomites

20

Give some commensal agents that cause pneumonia

Mannheimia haemolytica
Mycoplasma bovis
Pasteurella multocida

21

When is BRD most common?

Winter
(UV light kills viruses -> less sun in winter)

22

According to guidelines, how many animals should share the same airspace?

No more than 30

23

What is the PPP of lungworm?

3 weeks

24

Name the main viruses implicated in calf pneumonia and their common names

Bovine herpes virus (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR)
Respiratory syncitial virus (RSV)
Parainfluenza 3 (PI3)

25

'Fog fever' is a reaction to what?

Fructans in grass

26

Why are cows unlikely to have lungworm if they've been housed all their life?

Lungworm is grass-born

27

What would you expect in a 5 year old cow with a nosebleed?

Vena caval thrombo-embolism

28

What would you suspect in a cow with a stertorous upper respiratory noise?
How would you treat?

Laryngeal chondritis
May respond to penicillin/anti-inflammatories
May require traceotomy/-ostomy

29

How would you identify an animal that is trying to take in as much air as possible?

Deep breaths, elbows abducted

30

How would you identify a cow who experiences pain when breathing?

Shallow breaths

31

Should you always be alarmed if you find Pasteurella, Mannheimia or Mycoplasma in the URT?

No as they are commensal here

32

During sampling, what kind of swabs should you use if you suspect anaerobic bacteria is the cause?

Charcoal swabs

33

What kind of swabs can you use if you suspect IBR?

Nasopharyngeal, conjunctival

34

If only first lactation heifers are affected, what would that tell you about the disease?

The disease has only entered the herd recently

35

Finding a disease in adults indicates what?

Current infection

36

Give 2 indications of inadequate airflow in housing?

Tiger stripes
Cobwebs

37

A temperature of what value would make you want to treat a cow in a group?

39.5oC or 40oC

38

Give some antibiotics used to treat bovine respiratory diseases

Oxytetracycline
Beta lactams (eg penicillins)
Florfenicol
Macrolides (eg tulathromycin-'Draxxin')
Fluoroquinalones (public health issues)

39

When should you administer a vaccine to get the maximum benefit?

Before the risk period

40

How can you differentiate between a cow vaccinated against IBR compared with one that has been naturally infected?

Antibodies in the vaccine are different to those produced against the intact virus so can be differentiated on serology

41

How are IBR vaccines administered and when?

IM or intranasally (faster but local effects)
6-12 monthly boosters recommended

42

How would you vaccinate young naive cows against IBR? (ie live or dead)?

Live vaccines initially then dead boosters

43

Would you use live or dead IBR vaccines if there is an endemic infection?

Dead

44

What is the desirable value for humidity in housing?

<80%

45

How much airspace should a calf have when they are <6 weeks old and between 6-12 weeks old?

<6 wks old: 6m3/calf
6-12 wks old: 10m3/calf

46

How big should the age range be in a group of calves?

Max. 2 weeks spread

47

What would you see on PM of lungs affected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?

Bullae, coalesced alveoli

48

Where is IBR (bovine herpes virus) stored in the body?

Ganglia (facial nerve)
Recrudesces under stress

49

What would you suspect that might effect first lactation heifers that are turned out for the first time?

Lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus)

50

Laryngeal chondritis may be secondary to what?

Calf diphtheria (necrotic smell from mouth)

51

How can you sample for lungworm?

Faecal sampling (Baermanns apparatus)

52

Give some reasons for a lack of stack effect in a shed

No outlet
Building is too high
Insufficient biomass (eg calves; too small)

53

Which macrolide AB is vet administration only?

Tilmicosin

54

What would you want the inlet and outlet size to be in a calf shed with a monopitch roof?

0.25m2 per calf

55

What would you want the inlet and outlet size to be in a calf shed with a pitched roof?

Inlet: 0.05m2 per calf
Outlet: 0.04m2 per calf

56

How does laryngeal paralysis occur?

Damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve -> atrophy of cricoarytenoid muscles -> failure of one or both arytenoid cartilages to abduct during inspiration