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Flashcards in SA Cytology Deck (25)
1

Why may a cytology slide be of poor quality?

Ruptured cells (incorrect sampling/smearing technique)
Layer of cells too thick
Inadequate staining (insufficient time, inadequate drying prior to staining, too close to histology pot -> leakage)

2

Give some examples of artefacts you may see on cytology slides

Formalin exposure
Freezing
Stain precipitate
Serum activator
Understaining
Ultrasound gel

3

If you perform a cytology on an animal with peritonitis with bacteria, what should you suspect?

Rupture from GI tract

4

What are the limitations of cytology?

No information about tissue architecture
Are you really sampling the lesion?
Often can't determine specific tumor type or grade for behaviour/prognosis
Limited amount of specimen (compared to a surgical biopsy)

5

Which stain can you use to look for nuclear remnants when looking for reticulocytes?

New Methylene Blue

6

What are the 2 types of reticulocytes in cats?

Punctate (stay in circulation for 10 days)
Aggregate (only in circulation for 24 hours so look for these when looking for reticulocytes in cats)

7

How do mast cells look on cytology?

Very purple and granular

8

How do you do a platelet count?

Count number of platelets in 10 high power fields, take an average, multiply by 15

9

Give 2 causes of increased central pallor of RBCs

Myelosuppression, sepsis

10

How do you do a saline agglutination test?

1 drop of blood, 4-5 drops of saline -> will disperse rouleaux formation but not agglutination

11

How would you recognise IMHA on cytology?

Spherocytes, can see ghost cells, regenerative anaemia (anisocytosis, polychromasia), leucocytosis, left shift neutrophilia

12

How do you distinguish monocytes from band neutrophils?

Monocytes: vacuolated cytoplasm
Band neutrophils: more of a C shape

13

What is a metamyelocyte?

Early neutrophil (earlier than bands)

14

How do you classify leucopenia and leucocytosis on a high power field?

Leucopenia: <2 leucocytes
Leucocytosis: >5 leucocytes

15

How do you recognise epithelial cell tumours on cytology?

Clusters of polygonal cells

16

How do you recognise round cell tumours on cytology?

Diffuse sheets of round cells

17

How do you recognise mesenchymal tumours on cytology?

Streams/whirls of spindloid cells

18

What is anisiokaryosis?

Different-sized nuclei

19

What is karyomegaly?

Enlarged nucleus

20

Give some cellular features of malignancy

Minimum of 3 must be present for malignancy:
Hypercellularity
Pleomorphism
Multinucleation
Karyomegaly (enlarged nucleus)
Mitoses
Nuclear molding (rapid cell growth)
Coarse nuclear chromatin pattern
Large, angular or variable nucleoli

21

Cholesterol crystals are frequent in which lesions?

Cystic lesions

22

Hair follicle tumours are identical cytologically to what?

Follicular cysts

23

How would you identify a trichoblastoma cytologically?

Scant amount of cytoplasm (which may be pigmented)
May be abundant pink matrix
Frequent mitoses

24

Give some examples of soft tissue sarcomas in dogs and cats

Dogs: haemangiopericytoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumour, fibrosarcoma
Cats: fibrosarcoma, injection site sarcoma

25

Give some round cell tumours of the skin

Histiocytoma (dome-shaped, alopecic, may be ulcerated)
Mast cell tumour
Plasma cell tumour
Cutaneous lymphoma
Histiocytic sarcoma