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Flashcards in Ruminant Urogenital Deck (53)
1

How would you examine the urinary system?

History-how long/other signs?
Frequency/ease of urination
Urine-smell/appearance-sample
Rectal exam-palpate left kidney, bladder, diseased ureters, pain?
Catheterisation (sub-urethral diverticulum)
Prepuce

2

Where does the bladder sit in the female cow?

Ventral to vagina

3

What is the normal specific gravity of cow urine?

1.020-1.045

4

What should you check on a urinalysis when investigating the urinary system?

Colour
Pus/blood?
Specific gravity (1.020-1.045)
pH (normally alkaline)
Protein-usually trace only
Glucose-usually trace only

5

Give some clinical signs of urinary disease and possible causes

Abdominal pain (pyelonephritis, calculi)
Dysuria (pyelonephritis, calculi, cystitis, vaginitis)
Oliguria (pre-renal, renal, post-renal)
Proteinuria (renal amyloidosis-breed)
Haematuria +/- pus +/- calculi
Polyuria (diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, idiopathic in calves)
Anuria (obstruction by calculi)

6

Give some possible causes of haematuria (blood in urine)

Pyelonephritis (+ pus)
Cystitis
Urolithiasis
Enzootic haematuria
Acute bracken poisoning
Toxic nephrosis (acorns)
Glomerulonephritis, renal infarction etc

7

Give some possible causes of haemoglobinuria

Babesiosis ('redwater', breakdown of RBCs in circulation)
Post-parturient haemoglobinuria
Bacillary haemoglobinuria (Clostridium haemoliticum)

8

What is hypospadia?

Congenital abnormality
Urethra opens anywhere along length of penis at one or more locations

9

What would you see in a calf with a patent urachus?

Urine dribbling from umbilicus

10

Which bacteria classically causes pyelonephritis?

Corynebacterium renale
(Also E.coli)

11

Give some clinical signs of pyelonephritis

Abdominal pain
Chronic weight loss +/- mild pyrexia
Appetite usually ok
Dysuria
Blood and pus in urine (pus on vulval hairs)
Examine per rectum: swollen painful kidney, involvement and thickening of ureter and bladder

12

How do you treat pyelonephritis?
What is the prognosis like?

Long course antibiotics (penicillins, oxytet)
1/3 get better, 1/3 get better but recur, 1/3 never get better

13

What condition is often associated with pyelonephritis?

Cystitis

14

Cystitis can occur secondary to what?

Dystocia (ascending infection)

15

What are the clinical signs of cystitis?

Similar to pyelonephritis (Abdominal pain
Chronic weight loss +/- mild pyrexia
Appetite usually ok
Dysuria
Blood and pus in urine (pus on vulval hairs)
Examine per rectum: swollen painful kidney, involvement and thickening of ureter and bladder)
Straining more pronounced

16

How do you treat cystitis?

Antibiotics (penicillins, oxytet)

17

Describe amyloidosis in the cow

Not common
Deposition of amyloid and ab/ag complexes
Can be primary or secondary to other chronic infections

18

What are the clinical signs of amyloidosis?

Off food and ill
Profuse diarrhoea (rule out Johnes disease)
Generalised subcutaneous oedema
PUPD
Proteinuria
Low plasma albumin
Pale swollen kidneys

19

Describe enzootic haematuria in the cow

Haemangiomata (benign tumours of blood vessels) in bladder
Associated with long-term ingestion of bracken
Older cows
Blood clots in urine
Tumours in guts (SCC)

20

Enzootic haematuria is associated with long term ingestion of what?

Bracken

21

How can bracken poisoning affect sheep?

'Bright blindness' (retinal atrophy)

22

What substance in bracken is toxic in horses but not ruminants?

Thiaminase (inhibits uptake of thiamin, a B vitamin)

23

Give some clinical signs of bracken poisoning

Bone marrow toxicity
Pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia
Petechiae in mouth, conjunctiva, vulva etc
Subcutaneous bruising
Blood clots (nose, faeces)
Pryexia and depression
Diarrhoea (bloody)
Haematuria
Death

24

Toxic nephrosis occurs after ingestion of what?

Acorns (doesn't affect pigs)

25

How do acorns cause toxic nephrosis?

Tannins in acorns cause kidney damage
Death in 4-7 days despite supportive treatment

26

Give the clinical signs of toxic nephrosis

Sudden death
Anorexia, depression, bloat due to ruminal stasis
Constipation and straining
Foetid tarry diarrhoea

27

Which bacteria causes bacillary haemoglobinuria?
Where is it found?

Clostridium haemolyticum (Black disease)
In soil and dormant in liver

28

What may act as a trigger for bacillary haemoglobinuria?

Migrating fluke (Black disease)

29

Giv the clinical signs of bacillary haemoglobinuria

Pyrexia, jaundice, anaemia, oedema, haemoglobinuria
Fatal

30

How can you prevent bacillary haemoglobinuria?

Vaccinate against Black disease

31

What causes babesiosis (redwater)?

Babesia divergens

32

Give the clinical signs of babesiosis

Pyrexia
Anaemia and haemoglobinuria (port-coloured urine)
Diarrhoea
Later:
-Constipated
-Temerature falls
-Anaemia/jaundice

33

How do you dignose babesiosis?

Blood smear-capillary blood from ear
Parasites in RBCs
PCV (anaemia)
ELISA to assess herd exposure

34

How do you treat babesiosis?
What is the dose?
What is the meat and milk withhold?

Imidocarb
213 days meat, 21 day milk withhold
Inform DVM
Curative: 1ml/100kg once, SC
Preventative: 2.5ml/100kg once, 4 wks cover

35

When does post-paturient haemoglobinuria occur?

1-4 weeks after calving
Uncommon-older, high yielding dairy cows

36

Give the aetiology of post-parturient haemoglobinura

Low phosphorus diet
Kale, rape, turnips etc

37

Give the clinical signs of post-parturient haemoglobinuria

Sudden onset
Haemoglobinuria, pallor, jaundice
Collapse, dyspnoea, death

38

How do you treat post-parturient haemoglobinuria?

Phosphorus
Blood transfusion
Guarded prognosis

39

Which anti-coagulant would you add to cows blood for a transfusion?

Sodium citrate
10ml of a 3.85% solution added per 100ml of blood

40

How much blood would you collect from a donor cow for a blood transfusion?

5 litres
Collect using a jugular trochar or 10/12G catheter

41

Urolithiasis usually affects rams of what age?

2-4 month old (penis not fully developed, may have problems exteriorising penis)

42

Which calculi are usually responsible for causing urolithiasis in rams?

Calcium/magnesium phosphate

43

Which factors may lead to urolithiasis in rams?

Ca:P imbalance in diet
High concentrate diet
Water deprivation

44

Give some clinical signs of calculi

Restlessness
Abdominal pain (kicking) and straining
Dysuria or anuria
Preputial crystals/sand
Progressive until urethra and/or bladder ruptures

45

How could you test for a ruptured bladder?

Plasma/abdominal fluid will have high urea and creatinine

46

In how many locations could the male urogenital system become blocked with calculi?

3:
Sigmoid flexure
Urethral appendage
Urethral recess

47

How would you diagnose water belly?

Abdominal palpation:
-Distended bladder
-Free fluid wave
-SC fluid-pitting
Sand around prepucial orifice
US (free fluid in abdomen)
Abdominocentesis
Palpate urethra per-rectum
Blood sample (urea/creatinine)

48

What causes water belly?

Formation of small stones in the urinary tract causes the retention of urine and rupture of the urinary bladder or urethra

49

How do you treat urolithiasis (water belly)?

Relaxants (Buscopan)
Casualty slaughter
Referral if hasn't urinated in 2 hours
Can surgically remove

50

In which 2 ways could you surgically remove calculi in rams with urolithiasis?

1. Exteriorise end of penis (sedate, LA, forceps into prepuce and cut down midway, may have to partially amputate vermiform appendage)
2. Catheterise urethra, flush with LA and Walpole's solution (may damage epithelium if stricture)

51

How would you perform a urethrostomy?

Standing and epidural anaesthesia
Mid-line incision from 4" below anus in cattle
Identify penis and blunt dissect
Transect penis distally to leave a 4" proximal stump
Suture stump to skin (don't go through urethra)
Leave indwelling catheter for a few days
Don't allow to scab over

52

How would you treat water belly?

Incise skin in multiple sites to produce drainage
Bath/spray with salt water if pet animal

53

How could you prevent (re) occurrence of urolithiasis in rams?

Urinary acidification (ammonium chloride)
Check diet (no added magnesium, improve access to water, calcium/phosphorus ratio should 1.2-2:1)