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Flashcards in Ferrets Deck (37)
1

What is the normal heart rate of a ferret?

180-260 bpm

2

What is the normal resp rate of a ferret?

33-36 brpm

3

Where would you listen to a ferret's heart?

6th-8th rib (more caudal than other species)

4

What is the one accessory sex gland that ferrets have?

Prostate

5

Why do ferrets have discoloured fur?

Sebaceous glands

6

What normal occurrence may happen to ferrets in the summer months?

Seasonal weight loss (40%) and hair thinning

7

Enlargement of what organ is common and usually insignificant?

Spleen

8

Vulval swelling in females is associated with what?

Oestrus (if intact)
Adrenal gland disease (if neutered)
Ovarian remnant (if neutered; rare)

9

What should ferrets be vaccinated against?
When?

Distemper
Give half the canine dose of vaccination
Can catch from dogs
Vaccinate at 6-8 weeks old, then every 3-4 weeks until 14 weeks old, then annually

10

What is the normal rectal temp of a ferret?

37.8 - 40 oC

11

Where is the easiest place to take blood from?

Anterior vena cava/ proximal jugular vein

12

Where can you give im injections?

Quadriceps
Epaxial muscle

13

Is ferret urine acidic or alkaline?

Acidic

14

What are the maintenance fluid requirements of a ferret?

75-100ml/kg/day

15

What is the gestation period of a ferret?

41-43 days

16

Give the clinical signs of Distemper in ferrets

Chin rash, dermatitis of perineum, anorexia, pyrexia, depression, photophobia, blepharospasm
Mucopurulent oculonasal discharge followed by coughing and sneezing
Also foot pad swelling and hyperkeratosis
Fatal

17

What causes 'lumpy jaw' type lesions in ferrets?
How do you treat it?

Arcanobacterium pyogenes
High dose penicillin or tetracyclines

18

Which skin tumours are relatively common in ferrets?

Mast cell tumours (well-circumscribed, raised, hairless nodules that can become ulcerated)
Sebaceous epitheliomas and adenomas (pedunculated/plaque-like masses that can become ulcerated)

19

How can ferret fur change during the breeding season?

Can get bilaterally symmetric alopecia of the tail, perineum and inguinal area

20

Give some clinical signs of adrenal gland disease

Bilateral symmetrical alopecia, pruritus, vulval swelling
Castrates males: sexual behaviour, urethral obstruction secondary to prostatic hyperplasia, large prostatic cysts

21

Define adrenal gland disease in ferrets

Associated with adrenocortical hyperplasia, adenoma or adenocarcinoma
Occurs in middle-aged ferrets
Correlation between neutering and age at time of diagnosis (3.5 years later)

22

How do you diagnose adrenal disease in ferrets?

US (enlarged adrenal glands)
May be raised plasma androgens, oestradiol or hydroxyprogesterone levels

23

How do you treat adrenal gland disease in ferrets?

Surgical removal of glands and/or long-term hormonal therapy (Desorelin implants- GnRH agonist)

24

How does hyperoestrogenism occur in neutered females?

Ferrets are induced ovulators (ovulate 30-40 hours after mating)
Failure to mate -> prolonged oestrus -> hyperoestrogenism -> bone marrow suppression -> aplastic anaemia and pancytopenia
Can also occur with adrenal neoplasia

25

How do you treat hyperoestrogenism in ferrets?

Bring out of season: mate with neutered male, HCG, proligestone, or Desorelin implant
IV fluids, nutritional support, iron, vitamin
Blood transfusion if PCV<15% (normal= 47-59%)

26

How do you prevent hyperoestrogenism in ferrets?

Mating with a neutered male
'Jill jab' (proligestone) or deslorelin implants (GnRH agonist)

27

Insulinomas are common in which age of ferrets?

Middle aged

28

Give some acute and chronic clinical signs of an insulinoma in ferrets

Acute: collapse, recumbency, depression, hypersalivation, 'glassy-eyed' appearance
Chronic: gradual weakness (particularly HLs), lethargy, ataxia, +/- weight loss and reduced appetite

29

How do you diagnose an insulinoma in ferrets?

History, clinical signs, low blood glucose levels , high/normal blood insulin levels

30

How do you treat an insulinoma in ferrets?

Non-curative
Surgery: nodulectomy or partial pancreatectomy
Medical: oral prednisolone or diazoxide (reduces insulin secretion) BID

31

Give some clinical signs of foreign body ingestion

Anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, diarrhoea, ptyalism, pawing at mouth

32

What is the causal agent of gastroduodenal ulcers?

Helicobacter mustelae

33

Give some clinical signs of gastroduodenal ulcers

Anorexia, lethargy, melaena, teeth grinding, diarrhoea, ptyalism, abdominal pain, may have ulcerations on hard palate

34

How do you treat gastroduodenal ulcers?

Metronidazole and amoxicilin
Ranitidine, cimetidine or sucralfate can also be give
Supportive care

35

What is the most commonly seen parasite in ferrets?
What does it cause?
How do you treat it?

Coccidia
Can cause severe diarrhoea and rectal prolapse in young animals
Tx: sulfa drugs or Toltrazuril

36

What causes proliferative enteritis?
What clinical signs would you see?
How do you treat it?

Lawsonia intracellularis
Acute: colitis with green blood-flecked diarrhoea
Chronic: diarrhoea, haematochezia, anorexia, weight loss, rectal prolapse
Tx: ABs eg tetracyclines, supportive care

37

What would you suspect in a ferret with ataxia, paresis, tarry faeces and weight loss?
Can it be treated?

Aleutian disease of ferrets (parvovirus)
No treatment or vaccine
Euthanise severely-affected animals