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Flashcards in Pigs Deck (294)
1

What is the average UK mortality rate for piglets pre-weaning?

12.4%

2

Why may it be harmful to give piglets broad-spectrum antibiotics at birth?

Harmful effects on the development of the gut and nasopharyngeal microbiome

3

Give some non-infectious causes of scour in piglets pre-weaning

Milk scour
Nutritional scour

4

Give some viral causes of scour in piglets pre-weaning

Rotavirus
PED/TGE (porcine epidemic diarrhoea/transmissible gastro-enteritis)
PRRS

5

Give some bacterial causes of scour in piglets pre-weaning

E.coli
Clostridium perfringens type C or A

6

Give some parasitic causes of scour in piglets pre-weaning

Isospora suis (coccidia)
Cryptosporidiosis (protozoa)
Strongyloides

7

Give some triggers of scour in pre-weaners

Poor hygiene
Lack of colostrum
Draughts/chilling
Fostering
Lack of sow immunity

8

What kind of scour is seen with viral scours?

Watery, profuse scour
Mostly produce villous atrophy in SI
Dehydration kills

9

How many strains of rotavirus are there?

4
No cross immunity

10

Give some clinical signs of rotavirus infection

Sudden death, distended abdomen, rapid decomposition

11

How can you control rotavirus infection?

Improve hygiene
Reduce chilling
Improve immunity (no vaccine; controlled exposure or 'feedback' with sows in late pregnancy using scour material to increase immunity)
Electrolyte support

12

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea and transmissible gastroenteritis are types of what?

Coronavirus

13

What kind of diarrhoea is seen with PED and TGE? (porcine epidemic diarrhoea and transmissible gastroenteritis)?

Profuse watery scour and vomiting

14

Can you vaccinate against PRRS?

Yes-sows

15

Give some clinical signs of PRRS in pre-weaners

Chemosis (oedema of conjunctiva)
Bruising/anaemia
Weak piglets
Coughing (rare)

16

How could you sample for PRRS?

Saliva sampling for ELISA or PCR

17

How does PRRS affect the immune system?

Destroys macrophages in the lung
Relates to waning MDAs

18

Is E.coli more common in indoor or outdoor pigs?

Indoor

19

What kind of scour is seen with E.coli?

Watery to flocculating to creamy scour

20

E.coli tends to affect pre-weaners at what age?

1-3 days (ie earlier than viral infections)

21

How do you treat E.coli?

Oral or systemic antibiotics
Choose based on confirmatory tests
Often only fluoroquinalones are effective (last resort)
Electrolyte support

22

How can you control E.coli?

Vaccinate sows (only controls disease in first 3-4 days of piglets life)
Probiotics, yoghurt

23

What would you see on a PM of a piglet with clostridium perfringens type C?

Acute neonatal haemorrhagic enteritis due to B toxin

24

Does clostridium perfringens type C affect mostly indoor or outdoor pigs?

Outdoor

25

When do piglets usually die from clostridium perfringens type C?

Within 24 hours of birth

26

How can you treat clostridium perfringens type C?

Antibiotics: penicillin or beta-lactams
Need to treat at birth

27

How can you control clostridium perfringens type C?

Vaccinate sows pre-farrowing (2 doses followed by yearly boosters each parity)

28

What kind of scour is seen with clostridium perfringens type A?
Any other clinical signs?
When is disease seen?

Low-grade pasty scour
Weight loss
Disease seen from 6 hours old til weaning

29

How can you treat clostridium perfringens type A?

Penicillin-based antibiotics
Reduce fostering
Electrolytes

30

How can you prevent clostridium perfringens type A?

Short-term prophylaxis with antibiotics at birth
Vaccinate sows

31

Coccidiosis tends to affect piglets of what age?

2-3 weeks old

32

Describe scour seen with coccidiosis in piglets
When does scour stop?

Non-fatal yellow pasty scour, occasionally with tiny blood flecks
Unresponsive to treatment
Scour stops when milk is withdrawn at weaning, but can leave gut damage with post-weaning fading

33

How can you control coccidiosis in piglets?

Hygiene
Toltrazuril (coccidiostat) at 96hrs +/- 12 hrs old, single dose 0.4ml/kg
In severe outbreaks, give a second dose at 10 days

34

How can you diagnose enteric disease in piglets?

Sacrifice live unaffected pigs, fix gut sections in saline plus fresh gut contents
Test for virology, bacteriology, Cl toxins, histopathology
Test scour (virology, bacteriology, toxins)
Rectal swabs (bacteriology +/- PCR)

35

Describe 'milk scour' in pre-weaners

3 weeks onwards
Gut overload
Self-limiting unless secondary infection

36

Give some causes of nutritional scour in pre-weaners

Excessive creep feed
Indigestible creep feed
Stale/oxidised creep feed

37

Give some causes of nervous disease in piglets

Vitamin A deficiency
Meningitis/septicaemia
Miscellaneous poisons (heavy metals, plants, pharmaceuticals)
Aujeszky's disease

38

Describe a congenital tremor of grade CT A2 in piglets

Cerebellar atrophy plus hypomyelinogenesis
Ceases when pigs are asleep
Will recover providing pigs can suckle (4-6 weeks old)
Splay leg
Unknown virus, suspect spread in semen

39

How do bacteraemia, septicaemia, joint ill and meningitis occur in piglets?

Penetration of bacteria through teeth clipping, navel, wounds, tail docking, tonsil, prenatal infection
Caused by environmental contaminants eg staphs, streps, E coli

40

Give some clinical signs of meningitis/septicaemia/joint ill and bacteraemia?

Range from:
-Sudden death
-Convulsions (paddling)
-Acute lameness +/- visibly swollen joints
-Pyrexia
-Pain-muscle fasciculation
-Nystagmus
-Opisthotonus
-Cyanosis of extremities
-Subcutaneous petechial haemorrhages
-Collapse

41

When doing a PM on a piglet with septicaemia, how would the joints look?

Fluid in the joint cavities

42

How would you treat meningitis/septicaemia/joint ill/bacteraemia in piglets?
What about control?

Systemic antibiotics
NSAIDs/analgesia

Control: colostrum intake, hygiene, iodine dips, pre-farrowing treatment of sows

43

What is arthrogriposis?

Congenital joint contractures in 2 or more areas of the body

44

When are piglets weaned?

28 days (21=absolute minimum)

45

What is the target weight for piglets at weaning?

7kg at average of 28 days

46

How does a piglet's gut change during weaning?

Villous atrophy- natural consequence of removing liquid diet

47

Why may a piglet fail to wean?

Too young
Underweight (3.5-4kg minimum)
Inadequate gut development
Poor hygiene
Chilling (hypothermia)
Behavioural problems (don't adapt to losing mum)
Biological deficiencies (dietary insufficiency, disease challenges)

48

How would you identify a piglet that has failed to wean?

Loss of condition, slab-sided, hairy, oversized head
Not eating or drinking
Navel-sucking
Tail biting and other vices
Slow death

49

How can you prevent failing weaners?

Only wean suitable pigs (above 4kg)
Into suitable accommodation
Onto suitable food
Tight farrowing patterns
Identify and treat disease challenges before and after weaning
Aspirin in water for 5 days
Organic acid in water

50

What should you do with failing weaners?

If not viable/saleable-euthanise
Specialist hospital
Supplementary milk
Liquid diet
Medication (injection/water)
Put back onto isolated cull sow
DO NOT PUT BACK IN FARROWING SHED

51

Describe classic post-weaning E.coli scour

5-8 days post-weaning
Sudden onset
Watery diarrhoea
Some sudden deaths
Loss of condition
Dehydration
Mild pyrexia
Lower jejunum/ileum
Only diagnosable in lab (similar to salmonella)

52

Give some triggers for enteric diseases of the weaned pig

Diet
Feeding changes
Chilling
Gorging
Draughts
Poor hygiene
Previous gut damage

53

How can you treat enteric diseases of the weaned pig?

Antibiotics eg neomycin
Injectable vs water medication
Organic acids

54

How do draughts lead to enteric disease in piglets?

Draughts -> chilling -> decreased gut motility -> bacterial proliferation

55

How can you prevent enteric disease in weaned piglets?

Hygiene
Environmental control eg draught control
Zinc oxide via feed (heavy metals have anti-bacterial effects)
Organic acids
Metaphylactic/prophylactic antibiotics

56

Necrotic enteritis in weaners is mostly caused by which strain of salmonella?

S.typhimurium

57

Give some causes of CNS disease in post-weaners

u7uiuMeningitis
Bowel oedema
Water deprivation/salt poisoning
Middle ear disease
Toxicities
Notifiable/exotic diseases

58

Give some causes of meningitis in post-weaners

Strep suis most common (type 2)
Haemophilus parasuis

59

Give some clinical signs of meningitis

Trembling
Pyrexia
Collapse
Paddling convulsions
Tetanic spasms
Nystagmus
Sudden death

60

How do you diagnose meningitis?

PM
Congestion of meninges
Touch smear-high WBC counts
Culture of meningeal swab/csf aspirate (would see excess fluid)
Serotyping of isolate

61

How do you treat meningitis?

Injectable antibiotics-beta lactams, florfenicol
NSAIDs
Fluids (can die from dehydration as don't get up to drink)
Quiet
Warmth

62

Can you vaccinate against meningitis?

Yes:
-Commercial (sow)
-Autogenous (sow or piglet)

63

What causes 'Glassers disease'?

Haemophilus parasuis

64

What causes bowel oedema/oedema disease?

E coli strains that produce shiga toxins

65

Describe the pathology of bowel oedema

Shiga toxins from E coli produce oedema to brain, omentum, gastric mucosa, peritoneum
2-4 weeks after weaning

66

Give the clinical signs of bowel oedema/oedema disease

Puffy eyelids
Collapse
Sudden death
Paddling convulsions
Pyrexia
Subcutaneous oedema of skull
High pitched squeal (laryngeal oedema)

67

What would you find on a PM of a piglet with oedema disease/bowel oedema?

Subcutaneous oedema
Fluid deposits in abdomen
Abdominal oedema (greater omentum, spiral colon mesentery)
Brain oedema (minimal WBCs on touch smear)
Nasopharyngeal oedema

68

How can you treat and control bowel oedema/oedema disease?

Individual antibiotic treatment often fails due to toxins
NSAIDs
Corticosteroids
Water soluble metaphylaxis
Zinc oxide in feed
In feed antibiotics
Feed restriction
Piglet vaccine (4-7 days old)

69

Give the clinical signs of water deprivation

Most common in pigs 6-25 weeks old
Sudden onset nervous disease
No pyrexia
Manic behaviour around water points
Collapse, dog-sitting, opisthotonus, fall over backwards, convulsions
Rapid rehydration makes cases worse

70

How do you treat water deprivation?

Slow rehydration per rectum, intraperitoneal injection
Rapid rehydration causes osmotic flow of fluid to the brain -> swelling
Corticosteroids may help
iv drips in pet pigs

71

Give the clinical signs of middle ear disease in weaners

Head tilt
Head shaking

72

How do middle ear infections arise in weaners?

Routes of entry:
From external ear-usually associated with mange mites
From nasopharynx-via eustachian tube

73

How do you treat and control middle ear disease?

Early and intensive
Prolonged systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics
Mange control
NSAIDs
Euthanasia

74

Which diseases make up porcine respiratory disease complex (weaner respiratory disease)?

PRRS
Porcine circovirus 2
Swine influenza
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia
Mycoplasma hyopneumonia
Haemophilus parasuis

75

Give some clinical signs of weaner respiratory disease?
When do clinical signs start?

Start at or soon after weaning
Coughing
Pyrexia
Dyspnoea
Low appetite
Cyanosis
Loss of condition
Slowed growth
Death

76

What would you see on a PM of a piglet with weaner respiratory disease?

Lung consolidation; dependent lungs, patchy
Pleurisy
Pericarditis
Peritonitis
Polyserositis

77

What is the incubation period for swine influenza?

24 hours

78

Give the clinical signs of swine influenza

Coughing ++++
Pyrexia
Depression
Inappetence
Low mortality

79

How can you treat swine influenza?

No specific treatment
Avoid antibiotics unless secondary infections are a real risk
Aspirin in water
Paracetamol in feed

80

Can you vaccinate against swine influenza?

Yes, sows only

81

What is the cause of atrophic rhinitis in piglets?

Pasteurella multocida type D toxin-producing strain

82

Give the clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis in piglets

Initial rhinitis
Sneezing
Nasal discharge
Epistaxis
Tear staining
Destruction of turbinates
Snout distortion

83

Give the effects of progressive atrophic rhinitis

Reduces filter mechanism of nares -> more inhalation of pathogens and pollutants
Severe growth retardation
Uneconomic to maintain

84

What is PMWS?

Post-weaning multisystemic wasting disease

85

Give the clinical signs of PMWS (post-weaning multi-systemic wasting disease)

Fading starting around 7 weeks of age
Rapid loss of condition
Generalised lymphadenopathy
+/- respiratory disease
+/- enteric disease
Secondary disease

86

How is PMWS (post-weaning multisystemic wasting disease) controlled?

Vaccination

87

What causes greasy pig disease?
Is it pruritic?
Is it fatal?

Staphylococcus hyicus (skin commensal)
No
Can be fatal

88

When does greasy pig disease typically occur?

Post-weaning

89

How do you treat greasy pig disease?

Individual antibiotic injections (3-5 days) (lincomycin, beta lactams, 3rd or 4th gen cephalosporins)
Fluid replacement
Wash in Savlon

90

How can you prevent greasy pig disease?

Reduce damage caused by fighting (eg teeth clipping)
Hygiene
Improve ventilation/reduce humidity
Autogenous vaccines

91

What causes sarcoptic mange?

Scabies
Most common skin parasite of pigs

92

Give the clinical sigs of sarcoptic mange

Intense and persistent pruritus (scratching, head shaking)
Papular dermatitis
Dermal crusting
Lameness
Lethargy
Slowed growth
Ear crusting

93

When do signs of pityriasis rosea appear?

3-5 weeks of age
Spontaneously disappear at 12-14 weeks

94

Why should pet pig owners not keep pigs in close contact with sheep?

Ovine herpes virus 2 can be transmitted to pigs
Blind, aimless, ocular discharge, corneal clouding, mouth sores

95

What is the daily water intake of a pig?

100ml/kg/day

96

What is the normal rectal temp of a pig?

38.7-39.8

97

Where can you take blood from a pig?

Jugular vein
Ear vein?
Tail vein?

98

How much maintenance should a pet pig eat a day?

1% BW/day
(smaller breeds up to 2%)

99

Give some common consequences of obesity in pet pigs

Joint problems
Overgrown feet
Dermatitis in fat folds
Secondary arthritis
Entropion

100

Give some causes of locomotor problems in pet pigs

Overgrown feet
Joint problems (eg arthritis)
Erysipelas (joint and heart problems)
Streptococcal joint infections
Purulent joint abscess (arcanobacter)
Joint injuries (growth plate fractures, ruptured ligaments)
Bone problems (osteoporosis, vit D deficiency)
Hoof and foot cracks/ulcers/erosions (cracked hooves=biotin deficiency)

101

Pet pigs with cracked hooves may have a deficiency in what?

Biotin

102

How do you de-tusk pet boars?

Sedate
Noose behind tusks
Saw off with embryotomy wire
Remove all 4 tusks (won't bleed)

103

Give some causes of skin problems in pet pigs

Mange (sarcoptes scabei var suis)-ivermectins
Lice (haemoatopinus suis)-ivermectins
Insect bites (culicoides, mosquitoes)
Erysipelas-vaccinate twice yearly; penicillin
Ringworm (trichophyton verrucosum, M canis)
Greasy pig disease
Dermatitis in fat folds
Pressure sores
Sunburn
Photosensitisation
Zinc deficiency
Vit B deficiency
Flakey skin
Pityriasis rosea
Age-related alopecia
Atopic and contact allergies

104

Give some respiratory problems that may be seen in pet pigs

Rare in pet pigs due to low stocking densities
Metastrongylus in over-used paddocks
Migrating ascarids in uncleaned straw/earth pens

105

How would you treat glassers, APP, streps and staphs?

Penicillin

106

What must you need to know before you castrate an adult pet pig?

Accurate weight

107

What is the only licensed sedative in pigs?

Azaperone IM (IV causes excitement)
1-2mg/kg
Withdrawal=10 days
No analgesic properties
Can combine with GA or LA
Can use with ketamine, +/- diazepam or ACP

108

Why should you take care when using pentobarbital in pigs?

Not licensed or sterile
Causes heart-block in pigs

109

When castrating an adult pig, where can you inject pentobarbital and why?

Intra-testicular for rapid recovery

110

When do the majority of piglet deaths occur?

During the first 72 hours of life

111

How do you castrate an adult pig?

Two incisions in scrotum
Pull testicle out and wind until artery snaps (doesn't bleed)
(Can tie off but increases risk of infection)
No need to suture-heals well
Antibiotic cover
Analgesia-ketoprofen
Beware scrotal hernias. If present, give full GA

112

Give some geriatric problems of older pet pigs

Tumours
Severe dental problems
Arthritis
Deformed feet ('flat footed')
Diabetes
Spontaneous fractures

113

How often should you worm a pet pig?

4 times a year

114

How often should you vaccinate pigs against clostridial disease?

Vaccinate sows twice yearly

115

What size needle should you use for IM injections?

1.5 inch (16g)
Small pigs maybe 18g
Piglets 21g

116

Give some analgesics you can use in pet pigs

Meloxicam (metacam)
Ketoprofen
Flunixin
Phenylbutazone

117

Where should you euthanise small pet pigs when using barbiturates?

Anterior vena cava via jugular furrow

118

Where should you euthanise bigger pet pigs when using barbiturates?

Abdomen (10cm paravertebral, cranial to umbilicus)

119

Where should you aim when using a captive bolt gun for euthanasia?

Between the eyes, central, aim for back of throat

120

Give some possible poisons of pet pigs

Organophosphates
Antifreeze (ethylene glycol)
Phenols and cresols
Lead, other heavy metals
Warfarin
Phototoxins
Salt
Gases (eg NH3)
Monensin (growth promoter)

121

What is the difference between a notifiable and reportable disease?

-Notifiable: must report SUSPISCION to APHA
-Reportable: must be reported once it's been confirmed

122

Give some consequences of notifiable disease suspiscion

-Restrictions on movements from farm
-Restrictions on deliveries to farm
-Restrictions on you
-Protection zones
-Surveillance zones
-Possibly export restrictions
-Publicity

123

What are the consequences of confirmed PED (porcine epidemic diarrhoea)?

No restrictions; don't need to slaughter pigs (cf FMD)

124

How are pig notifiable diseases classified?

-Haemorrhagic diseases
-Vesicular diseases
-Others

125

Name the haemorrhagic pig notifiable diseases

-Classical Swine Fever
-African Swine Fever

126

Name the vesicular pig notifiable diseases

-FMD
-SVD (swine vesicular disease)
-Vesicular Stomatitis
-Vesicular Exanthema
-Seneca Valley A Virus

127

Name the other pig notifiable diseases

-Brucella suis
-Anthrax
-Treschen Disease
-PED High Path
-Aujeszky's Disease

128

What causes foot and mouth disease?

A Picorna virus

129

How many serotypes of foot and mouth disease are there?

7

130

Which kinds of animals does foot and mouth disease affect?

-Cloven-hoofed animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs)
-Various wildlife species (eg buffalo)

131

Which factors make FMD highly contagious?

-Rapid replication and short intubation
-Massive virus release
-High susceptibility of hosts
-Several routes of transmission

132

What is the incubation period of FMD?

2-14 days, depends on:
-The dose of virus to which the animal has been exposed
-The strain of the virus
-Route of infection

133

How is FMD spread?

-Virus is present in the fluid inside blisters, saliva, urine, dung, milk and exhaled air, and later in blood
-Infection occurs through direct or indirect contact (fomites, feed, aerosols, AI)

134

How long can humans harbour FMD virus for?

24-48 hrs, in their resp tract

135

Give the clinical signs of FMD

-Pyrexia
-Sudden lameness
-Vesicle formation mainly on the feet (coronary bands), snout or tongue
-Inappetence
-Abortion/sudden death in piglets

136

What causes swine vesicular disease?

An enterovirus

137

What causes vesicular exanthema?

A calicivirus

138

What causes vesicular stomatitis?

A rhabdovirus

139

What causes African Swine Fever?

An Asfarviridae virus (double-stranded DNA virus)

140

How is African Swine Fever spread?

-Indirect transmission: feed, fomites, Ornithodoros ticks (soft ticks)
-Direct transmission

141

What is the incubation period of African Swine Fever?

3-19 days

142

What are the 3 categories of African Swine Fever infection?

-Per-acute
-Acute
-Sub-acute/chronic

143

Give the clinical signs of per-acute acute African Swine Fever

Sudden death with few signs

144

Give the clinical signs of acute African Swine Fever

-Death within a few days (can have 100% mortality)
-Pyrexia (>41oC)
-Anorexia, apathy, incoordination
-Vomiting and diarrhoea (may be bloody)
-Resp signs, conjunctivitis
-Cyanosis of extremities
-Abortion

145

Give the clinical signs of sub-acute/chronic African Swine Fever

-Weight loss
-Reduced growth
-Lameness
-Resp signs
-Abortion

146

What causes Classical Swine Fever?

A pestivirus

147

How does transmission of Classical Swine Fever occur?

-Oral/oronasal route
-Mucous membranes
-Skin abrasions
-Aerosols
-Fomites
-Carrier animals

148

What is the incubation period of Classical Swine Fever?

2-15 days (but can be up to 4 weeks in the field)

149

Give the clinical signs of highly virulent strains of Classical Swine Fever

-Pyrexia
-Weakness
-Anorexia
-Conjunctivitis
-Constipation -> watery diarrhoea
-Vomiting
-Unsteady gait
-Skin haemorrhages/cyanotic discolouration
-Severe leucopenia
-Death within 1-3 weeks

150

Give some differential diagnoses for runting of pigs

-PMWS (porcine multi-systemic wasting syndrome)
-Campyloberteriosis
-Swine dysentry

151

Give some differential diagnoses for abortion in pigs

-Parvovirus
-PRRS
-Aujeszky's disease

152

Give some differential diagnoses for septicaemia in pigs

-Salmonellosis
-Erysipelas
-Pasteurellosis
-Haemophilus

153

What is Teschen Disease?
What are the clinical signs?

-Notifiable disease
-Enterovirus causing polioencephalomyelitis
-Clinical signs: high fever, incoordination, tremors, inappetence, convusions, death

154

What is Aujeszky's disease?

-Notifiable
-Herpes virus
-Also known as Pseudorabies/Mad Itch
-Now eradicated from most of NW Europe

155

What are the clinical signs of Aujeszky's disease in different ages of pigs?

-Adults: abortion storms, mummification, mild pyrexia, anorexia, vomiting
-Piglets from 3 days up to weaning: V and D -> nervous signs with pyrexia (dog-sitting, incoordination, muscle tremor, opisthotonus, convulsions)
-Weaners and growers: pyrexia, incoordination -> dog-sitting, convulsions, death. Pneumonia

156

How are pigs infected with Brucella suis?

(Notifiable)
-Oral or venereal infection

157

Give the clinical signs of Brucells suis

-Abortion, SMEDI (stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility)
-Vulval discharge
-Orchitis
-Polyarthritis and osteomyelitis

158

What are the symptoms of Seneca Valley A virus?

(Notifiable)
-Same as FMD
-Can cause fevers, acute lameness, reduced feed intake for older pigs and breeding herd

159

What does POM-V stand for?

Prescription-only medicine- veterinarian

160

What does POM-VPS stand for?

Prescription-only medicine- veterinarian, pharmacist, suitably qualified person

161

What does NFA-VPS stand for?

Non-food animal- veterinarian, pharmacist, suitably qualified person

162

What does AVM-GSL stand for?

Authorised veterinary medicine-general sales list

163

Which vaccines are available for breeding pigs?

-PRRS
-Porcine parvovirus
-Erysipelas
-PCV2
-Leptospirosa
-Clostridium novyi
-M. hyopneumoniae

164

Which vaccines are available to protect growing pigs directly?

-M. hyopneumoniae
-PCV2
-PRRS
-Actino pleuropneumoniae
-E.coli
-Haemophilus parasuis (Glassers)
-Lawsonia intracellularis
-Erysipelas

165

Which vaccines are available to protect growing pigs via colostrum ie by vaccinating the dam?

-E.coli
-Clostridium perfringens
-Erysipelas
-Haemophilus parasuis (Glassers)
-Progressive atrophic rhinitis

166

Compare live vs attenuated vaccines

Live:
-Stronger immunity
-Single dose
-More rapid onset
-But risk of reversion to virulence

Attenuated:
-Slower to effect
-Often double dosing
-Poorer reaction
-But safer and cheaper

167

Where is the best place to inject a pig when aiming behind the ear?

-Most muscular part
-Avoid going too high in sows -> fat layer
-Too low behind ears -> salivary glands

168

When should you vaccinate a sow against Parvovirus?

2 weeks before service

169

What should you vaccinate a gilt against post-service/pre-farrowing?

-E.coli
-Erysipelas booster
-Clostridium perfringens (with E.coli)
-PAR (progressive atrophic rhinitis)

170

What should you vaccinate a sow with at each parity?

-E.coli
-Parvovirus
-Erysipelas
-Clostridium perfringens
-PRRS
-Strep suis
-Haemophilus parasuis

171

What should you vaccinate a sow with before service?

-Erysipelas
-Parvovirus
-PRRS
-Lepto
-PCV2 booster

172

Which vaccinations would you give to a growing pig?

-Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (from 3 days)
-PCV2
-E.coli (4 days old)
-PRRS (from 3 weeks old)
-Lawsonia (from 3 weeks old)
-Glassers (Haemophilus parasuis, 2 doses from 5 weeks old)
-Actino pleuropneumoniae (2 doses from 6 weeks old)

173

What is an autogenous vaccine?

-Made from culture of microorganisms from an individual, then used to immunize that same individual against further spread and progression
-Must be inactivated

174

When are autogenous vaccines used?

-When no commerical vaccine is available
-When commerical vaccine fails

175

What are the Group 1 antibiotics?

First choice for use
-Tetracyclines
-Penicillins
-Fenicols
-Pleuromutilins
-Aminocyclitol
-Aminoglycosides
-Suplhonamides

176

What are the Group 2 antibiotics?

Second choice for use
-Betalactams (including 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporins)
-Macrolides

177

What are the Group 3 antibiotics?

Last resort, use when nothing else works
-Fluororquinalones
-3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins
-Colistin
-Amoxycilin/Clavulanic acid

178

How much water does a pig drink?

10ml/kg/day

179

How much food should a piglet eat post-weaning (2 weeks)?

2.5% BW/day

180

How much food should a piglet eat when it is 6-20 weeks old?

4% BW/day

181

How much food should a sow eat in lactation?

0.5-5% BW/day

182

How much food should a dry sow eat?

1.25% BW/day

183

What is toltrazuril?

Anti-coccidial

184

Why might we give hormones to pigs?

-Stimulate oestrus (eg PMSG + hCG)
-Synchronise oestrus (eg Regumate)
-Induce farrowing (PGF2a)
-Stimulate uterine contractions (eg oxytocin)

185

When does oestrus occcur after giving Regumate?

5 days after last dose

186

How long must you give Regumate for before sows come into oestrus?

18 days, oestrus occurs 5 days after last dose
(Squirt into mouth)

187

How long must records be kept for regarding medicine use in food-producing animals?

5 years

188

Give a problem with in-feed medication

-Can't guarantee all pigs are getting correct dose (eg reduced appetite -> won't have full dose)

189

What must you include when recording medicine use?

-Product used (bottle no if relevant)
-Date treatment started
-Identification/location of animal
-Reason for treatment
-Duration and dose of treatment
-Withdrawal period
-Earliest date for slaughter for human consumption
-Administrator's signature/initials

190

Which licensed GA are available in pigs?

None

191

What is the only licensed sedative in pigs?

Azaperone

192

Which drug would you use for an epidural in pigs?

Lidocaine

193

What would you use for anaesthetising pigs?

Rompun (xylazine) and ketamine

194

How old is a 'grower pig'?

12-25 weeks (30-100+kg)

195

Give the major disease syndromes of growing pigs

-Porcine respiratory disease complex
-Enteric diseases (infectious and physical)
-Vice
-Erysipelas
-Lameness

196

When does porcine respiratory disease complex occur?

-At or soon after weaning and continues into growing stages
-Or starts at finishing stages (after 12 weeks old)

197

Give the clinical signs of porcine respiratory disease complex

-Coughing
-Pyrexia
-Dyspnoea
-Cyanosis
-Low appetite
-Loss of condition
-Slowed growth
-Mortality

198

Give some diseases that contribute to porcine respiratory disease complex

-PRRS
-Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
-Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
-Swine infuenza
-Damage done by earlier challenges

199

What is the incubation period for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae?

6-8 weeks

200

How does Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affect the lungs?

-Damages bronchial cilia -> secondary bacterial challenge -> pleurisy
-Interstitial pneumonia

201

Cranial lung lesions implies which kind of pneumonia?

Inhalation pneumonia

202

What causes swine enzootic pneumonia?

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

203

How do you diagnose swine enzootic pneumonia?

-Gross pathology -> lung lesions
-Histopathology
-PCR
-Combination

204

How do you treat swine enzootic pneumonia?

-Individuals: TMZ, LA macrolides
-Group: via water: TMZ, florphenicol, tylosin, lincomycin

205

How can you prevent swine enzootic pneumonia?

-In-feed medication: prophylactic eg CTC, tilmicosin
-Vaccinate from 3 days old

206

What are the 3 possible presentations of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?

-Part of porcine respiratory disease complex
-Acute/per-acute outbreaks
-Chronic grumbling disease

207

Give the clinical signs of acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

-Sudden death
-Mass lethargy and inappetence
-Coughing variable
-Extreme pyrexia
-Bloody discharge from nares
-Can see remarkable recovery with Ceftiofur injection

208

Give some infectious and physical GI conditions of growers/finishers

Infectious:
-Swine dysentry
-Spirochaecal colitis
-Lawsonia (ileitis)
-Grower scours
-Parasitism

Physical:
-Gastric ulceration
-Volvulus
-Prolapse
-Rectal stricture

209

What causes swine dysentry?

-Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
-Causes ulcerative colitis/typhlytis

210

Why is swine dysentry a costly disease?

-Death
-Slow growth
-Poor feed conversion efficiency
-Stunting

211

What are the clinical signs of swine dysentry?

-Muco-haemorrhagic scour
-Foul smell
-Pyrexia
-Depression
-Inappetence
-Rapid loss of condition
-Slab-sided pigs
-Death after a few days

212

How do you treat swine dysentry?

-Pleuromutilins-tiamulin/valnemulin
-Lincomycin
-Tylvalosin

213

How do you control swine dysentry?

-No vaccine
-Nutritional management

214

What causes Spirochaetal colitis?

-Brachyspira pilosicoli (common commensal)
-Often mixed infection with Lawsonia/Salmonella/Yersinia enterocolitica

215

Give the clinical signs of Spirochaetal colitis

-Cow pat dung -> frank scour
-Occasionally blood flecking, rarely mucous

216

What are 'grower scours'?

-Nutritionally-induced low grade hind gut enteritis, often complicated with Brachyspira pilosicoli/Lawsonia
-Caused by over-eating (esp pelleted feed)

217

How do you control grower scours?

-Nutritional management
-Restricted feeding
-Hygiene
-Reduced cereal inclusion

218

How do you treat grower scours?

-Same for swine dysentry: -Pleuromutilins-tiamulin/valnemulin, Lincomycin, Tylvalosin

219

What is PIA?

Porcine intestinal adenopathy (ileitis)

220

What is PHE?

Proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy (ileitis)

221

What causes PIA and PHE?

Lawsonia intracellularis

222

Give the clinical signs of porcine intestinal adenopathy (PIA)

-Thickening of terminal SI and proximal colon
-Mal-digestion
-Low grade scour
-Loss of condition
-Slow/uneven growth

223

Give the clinical signs of proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy (PHE)

-Acute haemorrhagic ileitis/colitis
-Sudden death
-Foul smell
-Usually older animals
-Blood 'rope' (of clotted blood)

224

How do you treat PIA and PHE (porcine intestinal adenopathy and proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy)?

-Causative agent (Lawsonia) is intracellular so need an antibiotic that penetrates cell walls -> macrolides
-Tylosin
-Vaccine (live oral vaccine)

225

Give the clinical signs of Ascaris suum infection

-Rarely causes gut disturbance
-Occasional gut blockage
-'Milk spot liver' (migration)
-Jaundice
-Growth inhibition

226

When is Ascaris suum usually detected?

Slaughter

227

How can you prevent Ascaris suum?

-Worming: avermectins/benzimidazoles
-Hygiene: lime washings, eggs are almost indestructible

228

Where does Trichuris suis reside?

Colon -> irritation

229

How do you control Trichuris suis?

-Hygiene (lime washing)
-Multiple high dose worming

230

What is volvulus?

Rotation of GI tract on base of mesentery

231

Give some clinical signs of volvulus

-Very rapid death or short period of intense pain
-Swollen abdomen
-Pale carcass
-Protrusion of anus
-Caecal positioning is diagnostic (twisted 360 degrees)

232

Give the clinical signs 0f a haemorrhagic gastric ulcer

-Malena -smell (digested blood)
-Sudden death
-Pale carcass
-Clotted blood in stomach +/- intestine
-Obvious ulcer

233

Give some causes of gastric ulcers

-Stress
-High wheat diets
-High protein diets
-Vitamin deficiencies

234

Give some causes of rectal prolapse

-Excess abdominal pressure (coughing, huddling, over-stocking)
-Straining (diarrhoea)

235

How do you replace a rectal prolapse?

-Sugar
-Rubber gloves
-Gentle pressure +/- purse string suture
-Or could amputate

236

Give a possible consequence of a rectal prolapse

Stricture

237

Give some consequences of a rectal stricture

-Gut blockage, can't defecate, abdominal distension, lost condition, jaundice
-If blood supply is interrupted -> bacterial infection eg salmonella, strep suis, haemophilus parasuis

238

How do you treat a rectal prolapse?

-If found early -> gently ease open with fingers
-Otherwise -> euthanase

239

How shoud you respond to umbiical hernias?

-If small, leave alone
-If large/damaged -> euthanase

240

What is the most common bacteriaemic/septicaemic condition of pigs?

Erysipelas (diamond skin disease)

241

What are the clilnical signs of erysipelas?

-Peracute: found dead, septicaemia
-Acute: diamond skin lesions, severe pyrexia, depression, anorexia
-Chronic sequelae: crippling lameness, endocarditis, skin sloughing
-Sows: abortion

242

What is the cause of erysipelas?

-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae- many strains
-Organism is carried asymptomatically bymost wild birds and rodents
-Common in outdoor systems
-Breeding systems usually vaccinated but not growers

243

How do you treat erysipelas?

-Penicillin
-Amoxycillin can be used in water metaphylactically
-Vaccination
-Romove source (bird contamination of feed, rodent control)

244

Give some vices of growers/finishers

Biting of tails, ears, flanks, legs, anus, vulva

245

What causes vices?

-Discontentment (not boredom)
-Frustration
-Insifficient food/water access
-Draughts
-Over-/under-stocking
-Nutritional defects
-Concurrent disease
-Teething?

246

Give some consequences of vices

-Death
-Local abscessation
-Spinal abscessation
-Unmarketability
-Euthanasia

247

Will a pig be accepted for consumption if it has a swollen joint?

No

248

Give some clinical signs of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae

-Acute synovitis
-Often no visible swelling
-Acute polyarthritis -> lameness, stiff legs, collapse under weight

249

How is Mycoplasma hyosynoviae spread?

In faeces

250

How do you treat Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection?

Tiamulin/lincomycin

251

What is the Farrowing Index?
What is the target value?

-Number of litters per sow per year
-Target=2.4

252

What is the target number of pigs born alive per sow per year?

>27

253

What is the target number of pigs born alive per sow per litter?

11.5

254

Which factors affect the number of pigs born alive per litter?

-Ovulation rate
-Fertilisation rate
-Implantation rate
-Embryonic survival rate
-Foetal survival rate
-Parturition survival rate

255

What is meant by an 'empty day'?

Days that the uterus is empty

256

What is meant by farrowing rate?
What is the target %?

The proportion of females served that farrow
85%

257

What is meant by conception rate?
What is the target %?

Number of services required to establish a viable pregnancy
(3 week non-return rate)
90%

258

What is meant by litter scatter?

Over 15% of litters having 8 piglets or less

259

What is the target value for piglets born dead per litter?

0.7

260

Give some causes of sow post-weaning anoestrus

-Body condition (very fat or very thin)
-Starvation
-Boar contact
-Stress
-Pre-weaning 'silent heat'
-Season (of year)
-Mycotoxicosis (in feed or bedding)
-Poor observation, short visible oestrus
-Endometritis

261

Give some causes of failure of fertilisation

-Timing and quality of service
-Quality of service
-Boar contact for AI
-Fertility of semen (eg contaminated)

262

Give some causes of early embryonic loss

-Pre-implantation stress
-Nutrition
-Endometritis

263

Give some causes of vaginal discharge in sows after service

-Service hygiene (carrier boars- Actinobaculum suis)
-Service- house hygiene
-Carry over from farrowing (debris, damage, infection)
-Chronic cystitis

264

How could you improve conception and fertilisation rates?

-Injectable GnRH analogues eg Buserelin, Perforelin
-Give after weaning to increase FSH/LH

265

When should you give Beserelin (GnRH analogue)?

-Sows: 83-89hrs after weaning, then AI 30-33hrs later
-Gilts: 115-120hrs after synchronisation, then AI 30-33hrs later

266

When should you give Perforelin (GnRH analogue)?

-Sows: 24hrs after weaning
-Gilts: 48hrs after synchronisation

267

How do you use Regumate?
What is the active ingredient?

-Give orally for 18 days, oestrus occurs 5-7 days later
-Altrenogest

268

What is the most important time during pregnancy to avoid stress?

Attachment of conceptus

269

Which virus can cause mummified piglets?

Parvovirus

270

Give some non-infectious conditions that can cause abortion

-Sunburn
-Heat stress
-Photosensitisation
-Toxaemia-poisons, physiological
-Sudden reduction in food intake

271

Which condition can cause sows to have blue ears?

PRRS

272

At what age are gilts first served?

220-230 days old (130-140kg)

273

What condition score should a gilt be when she is first served?

3 out of 5

274

Why is pig semen always used fresh?

Can't be successfully frozen and defrosted

275

Give some causes of primary uterine inertia

-Over-distension of uterus (overfull/hydrops foetalis-abnormal accumulation of fluid in 2 or more foetal compartments)
-Lack of exercise
-Hypocalcaemia
-Other illnesses eg flu, PRRS
-Endocrine malfunction (lack of luteolysis)

276

Give some causes of secondary uterine inertia

-More common
-Heat
-Exhaustion
-Dehydration
-Hypocalcaemia
-Intercurrent disease
-Prolonged foetal dystocia
-Often leads to RFM -> failure to involute -> metritis
-Dead putrefying foetuses

277

How do you treat uterine inertia?

-Oxytocin (0.2-0.4ml during farrowing, 0.6-1ml after farrowing and next day)
-Antibiotics (LA penicillin)
-Anti-inflammatories, esp if bruising/swelling/damage eg corticosteroids
-Analgesia (NSAIDs)
-Prostaglandins to induce labour/expel uterus 24-48 hrs post farrowing

278

When would you perform a C-sectionon a sow?

-Pelvic blockage
-Unresponsive inertia

279

Which anaesthesia should you use when doing a C-section?

-Ketamine (0.15-0.2ml/kg)
-Sedate with Azaperone

280

Where should you incise when doing a C-section?

10cm above and parallel to udder, approx 20cm long

281

When does vaginal prolapse tend to occur in relation to farrowing?

Pre-farrowing

282

What is MMA complex?

Constipation=underlying case?
-Mastitis
-Metritis
-Agalactia (no milk)

283

Give some factors that affect MMA

-Farrowing house temperatures
-Pre-farrowing feeding (excess/type)
-Water availability
-Constipation
-Sow condition
-Duration of farrowing
-Floor quality
-Pathogens eg Klebsiella, Coliforms

284

How do you treat MMA?

-Corticosteroids (dexamethasone)
-Oxytocin
-Antibiotics (borad spectrum eg Pen/Strep)
-Analgesia
-Sow comfort
-Supplement piglets

285

What is the most common skin parasite of pigs?
How do you treat it?

Sarcoptes scabiei var suis
Tx: ivermectin

286

How do you differentiate false ringworm from true ringworm?
What is false ringworm actually called?

False ringworm= Pityriasis rosea
False ringworm is non pruritic, true ringworm is

287

What should you use if doing an epidural on a pig?

2% Lidocaine

288

Where is preferable for giving IM injections?

Neck

289

What is the legal minimum weaning age for piglets?
How much should they weigh?

28 days (7-8kg)

290

What is the target weight for piglets aged 10-12 weeks old?

30kg

291

What is the target weight for piglets aged 22-24 weeks old?

100kg

292

Which antibody is most prominent in pig colostrum?

IgG

293

What can you use to induce labour?

Prostaglandins (must know due date)

294

Which parasite causes 'milk spot liver'?

Ascaris suum